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27.09.2017 | Original Article | Ausgabe 12/2017

European Journal of Pediatrics 12/2017

Niemann-Pick disease type C in the newborn period: a single-center experience

Zeitschrift:
European Journal of Pediatrics > Ausgabe 12/2017
Autoren:
Ersin Gumus, Goknur Haliloglu, Asuman Nur Karhan, Hulya Demir, Figen Gurakan, Meral Topcu, Aysel Yuce
Wichtige Hinweise
Communicated by Peter de Winter

Abstract

Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a neurovisceral lysosomal storage disorder with a great variation in clinical spectrum and age at presentation. Clinical features of 10 NPC patients who presented in the newborn period between 1993 and 2015 at our center were retrospectively analyzed. Males and females were equally distributed; there was a history of parental consanguinity (n = 8) and first-degree relative with NPC (n = 3). Patients were symptomatic between 1 and 10 days (mean 3.6 ± 2.6 days). Age at diagnosis was between 1 and 30 days (mean 14.6 ± 13.3 days). Laboratory work-up included bone marrow aspiration (n = 8) and/or filipin staining (n = 4). Confirmation was done by molecular analysis, indicating NPC1 (n = 8) and NPC2 (n = 2) mutations. All patients had neonatal cholestasis and hepatosplenomegaly. Pulmonary involvement (n = 9) and fetal ascites (n = 2) were additional accompanying features. All but one died due to pulmonary complications (n = 6) and liver insufficiency (n = 3) between 1.5 and 36 months of age (mean 8.1 ± 10.8 months). Currently, one patient is alive at the age of 11 months without any neurological deficit.
Conclusions: Neonatal presentation is a rare form of NPC with exclusively visceral involvement in the newborn period and poor prognosis leading to premature death due to pulmonary complications and liver failure.
What is known:
Neonatal presentation is a rare form of NPC with exclusively visceral involvement in the newborn period and poor prognosis leading to premature death.
Progressive liver disease is the most common cause of death among neonatal-onset NPC patients.
What is new:
Natural course of neonatal-onset NPC may show variations.
Pulmonary involvement should be considered as an important cause of death in neonatal-onset cases, and appropriate precautions should be taken to prevent complications of respiratory insufficiency and airway infections.

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