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04.07.2016 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 5/2016

Cellular Oncology 5/2016

Nitric oxide increases the migratory activity of non-small cell lung cancer cells via AKT-mediated integrin αv and β1 upregulation

Zeitschrift:
Cellular Oncology > Ausgabe 5/2016
Autoren:
Vhudhipong Saisongkorh, Arnatchai Maiuthed, Pithi Chanvorachote

Abstract

Background

Previously, nitric oxide (NO) has been found to affect the metastatic behavior of various types of cancer. In addition, it has been found that alterations in integrin expression may have profound effects on cancer cell survival and migration. Here, we aimed at assessing the effects of non-toxic concentrations of NO on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, including the expression of integrins and the migration of these cells.

Methods

The cytotoxic and proliferative effects of NO on human NSCLC-derived H460, H292 and H23 cells were tested by MTT assay. The migration capacities of these cells was evaluated by wound healing and transwell migration assays. The expression of integrins and migration-associated proteins was determined by Western blot analyses.

Results

We found that NO treatment caused a significant increase in the expression of integrin αv and β1 in all three NSCLC-derived cell lines tested. Known migration-associated proteins acting downstream of these integrins, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK), active RhoA (Rho-GTP) and active cell division control 42 (Cdc42-GTP), were found to be significantly activated in response to NO. In addition, we found that NO-treated cells showed an increased motility and that this motility was associated with a significant increase in the number of filopodia per cell. We also found that NO-treated cells exhibited increased active protein kinase G (PKG), protein kinase B (AKT) and FAK expression levels. Using a pharmacological approach, we found that the integrin-modulating effect of NO is most likely brought about by a PKG/AKT-dependent mechanism, since the observed changes in integrin expression were abolished by AKT inhibitors, but not by FAK inhibitors.

Conclusion

Our data suggest a novel role of NO in the regulation of integrin expression and, concomitantly, the migratory capacity of NSCLC cells.

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