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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2016 Open Access

BMC Public Health 1/2016

No differences in clinical outcomes with the addition of viral load testing to CD4 cell count monitoring among HIV infected participants receiving ART in rural Uganda: Long-term results from the Home Based AIDS Care Project

BMC Public Health > Ausgabe 1/2016
Stephen Okoboi, Paul John Ekwaru, James D. Campbell, Aggrey Egessa, Racheal King, Celestin Bakanda, Emmy Muramuzi, Frank Kaharuza, Samuel Malamba, David M. Moore
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

DMM, JPE, RK JCD, FK and SM, designed the study. CB, DMM, and JPE supervised data collection of the study. AE, CB, and JPE collected the data. AE, CB, SO, and DMM, conducted or contributed to the data analysis. AE, JPE, CB, SO and DMM interpreted the data. SO prepared the original manuscript, all authors contributed to subsequent revisions, read and approved the final manuscript.



We compared clinical outcomes among HIV-infected participants receiving ART who were randomized to viral load (VL) and CD4 cell count monitoring in comparison to CD4 cell count monitoring alone in Tororo, Uganda.


Beginning in May 2003, participants with CD4 cell counts <250 cells/μL or WHO stage 3 or 4 disease were randomized to clinical monitoring alone, clinical monitoring plus quarterly CD4 cell counts (CD4-only); or clinical monitoring, quarterly CD4 cell counts and quarterly VL testing (CD4-VL). In 2007, individuals in clinical monitoring arm were re-randomized to the other two arms and all participants were followed until March 31, 2009. We used Cox Proportional Hazard models to determine if study arm was independently associated with the development of opportunistic infections (OIs) or death.


We randomized 1211 participants to the three original study arms and 331 surviving participants in the clinical monitoring arm were re-randomized to the CD4-VL and CD4 only arms. At enrolment the median age was 38 years and the median CD4 cell count was 134 cells/μL. Over a median of 5.2 years of follow-up, 37 deaths and 35 new OIs occurred in the VL-CD4 arm patients, 39 deaths and 42 new OIs occurred in CD4-only patients. We did not observe an association between monitoring arm and new OIs or death (AHR =1.19 for CD4-only vs. CD4-VL; 95 % CI 0.82–1.73).


We found no differences in clinical outcomes associated with the addition of quarterly VL monitoring to quarterly CD4 cell count monitoring.
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