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01.12.2017 | Original investigation | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

Cardiovascular Diabetology 1/2017

NTproBNP in insulin-resistance mediated conditions: overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. The population-based Casale Monferrato Study

Cardiovascular Diabetology > Ausgabe 1/2017
Stefano Baldassarre, Salvatore Fragapani, Antonio Panero, Debora Fedele, Silvia Pinach, Manuela Lucchiari, Anna Rita Vitale, Giulio Mengozzi, Gabriella Gruden, Graziella Bruno


Background and aims

NTproBNP and BNP levels are reduced in obese subjects, but population-based data comparing the pattern of this relationship in the full spectrum of insulin-resistance mediated conditions, overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, are limited.


The study-base were 3244 individuals aged 45–74 years, none of whom had heart failure, 1880 without diabetes and 1364 with diabetes, identified as part of two surveys of the population-based Casale Monferrato Study. All measurements were centralized. We examined with multiple linear regression and cubic regression splines the relationship between NTproBNP and BMI, independently of known risk factors and confounders. A logistic regression analysis was also performed to assess the effect of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), diabetes and metabolic syndrome on NTproBNP values.


Out of the overall cohort of 3244 people, overweight/obesity was observed in 1118 (59.4%) non-diabetic and 917 (67.2%) diabetic subjects, respectively. In logistic regression, compared to normal weight individuals, those with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 had a OR of 0.70 (95% CI 0.56–0.87) of having high NTproBNP values, independently of diabetes. As interaction between diabetes and NTproBNP was evident (p < 0.001), stratified analyses were performed. Diabetes either alone or combined with overweight/obesity or metabolic syndrome enhanced fourfold and over the OR of having high NTproBNP levels, while the presence of metabolic syndrome alone had a more modest effect (OR 1.54, 1.18–2.01) even after having excluded individuals with CVD. In the non-diabetic cohort, obesity/overweight and HOMA-IR ≥ 2.0 decreased to a similar extent the ORs of high NTproBNP [0.76 (0.60–0.95) and 0.74 (0.59–0.93)], but the association between overweight/obesity and NTproBNP was no longer significant after the inclusion into the model of HOMA-IR, whereas CRP > 3 mg/dl conferred a fully adjusted OR of 0.65 (0.49–0.86).


NT-proBNP levels are lower in overweight/obesity, even in those with diabetes. Both insulin-resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation are involved in this relationship. Further intervention studies are required to clarify the potential role of drugs affecting the natriuretic peptides system on body weight and risk of diabetes.
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