The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
EKL participated in the study design, coordination, analysis, and manuscript preparation. MLM, LJA, JC, RSP, SD, CRS and FP participated in design of select study components. TG, WD participated in the design of the study and data analysis. PAM, PEM, RV, and DHA participated in study coordination. TVH conceived of the idea, designed the study, obtained study funding, supervised acquisition and analysis of patient and biospecimen data and prepared the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) during infancy has been consistently associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma. In addition, evidence supports that this relationship is causal. However, the mechanisms through which RSV contributes to asthma development are not understood. The INSPIRE (Infant Susceptibility to Pulmonary Infections and Asthma Following RSV Exposure) study objectives are to: 1) characterize the host phenotypic response to RSV infection in infancy and the risk of recurrent wheeze and asthma, 2) identify the immune response and lung injury patterns of RSV infection that are associated with the development of early childhood wheezing illness and asthma, and 3) determine the contribution of specific RSV strains to early childhood wheezing and asthma development. This article describes the INSPIRE study, including study aims, design, recruitment results, and enrolled population characteristics.
The cohort is a population based longitudinal birth cohort of term healthy infants enrolled during the first months of life over a two year period. Respiratory infection surveillance was conducted from November to March of the first year of life, through surveys administered every two weeks. In-person illness visits were conducted if infants met pre-specified criteria for a respiratory illness visit. Infants will be followed annually to ages 3-4 years for assessment of the primary endpoint: wheezing illness. Nasal, urine, stool and blood samples were collected at various time points throughout the study for measurements of host and viral factors that predict wheezing illness. Nested case-control studies will additionally be used to address other primary and secondary hypotheses.
In the INSPIRE study, 1952 infants (48% female) were enrolled during the two enrollment years and follow-up will continue through 2016. The mean age of enrollment was 60 days. During winter viral season, more than 14,000 surveillance surveys were carried out resulting in 2,103 respiratory illness visits on 1189 infants. First year follow-up has been completed on over 95% percent of participants from the first year of enrollment.
With ongoing follow-up for wheezing and childhood asthma outcomes, the INSPIRE study will advance our understanding of the complex causal relationship between RSV infection and early childhood wheezing and asthma.
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- Objectives, design and enrollment results from the Infant Susceptibility to Pulmonary Infections and Asthma Following RSV Exposure Study (INSPIRE)
Emma K Larkin
Martin L Moore
Larry J Anderson
William D Dupont
James D Chappell
Patricia A Minton
R Stokes Peebles Jr
Paul E Moore
Robert S Valet
Donald H Arnold
Suman R Das
Fernando P Polack
Tina V Hartert
On Behalf of the INSPIRE Study
- BioMed Central
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