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22.07.2019 | Original Article | Ausgabe 4/2019

Sleep and Breathing 4/2019

Obstructive sleep apnea and craniofacial appearance in MPS type I-Hurler children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Zeitschrift:
Sleep and Breathing > Ausgabe 4/2019
Autoren:
Till Koehne, Sarah Müller-Stöver, Anja Köhn, Katharina Stumpfe, Susanne Lezius, Carmen Schmid, Zoltan Lukacs, Bärbel Kahl-Nieke, Nicole Muschol
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11325-019-01900-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Abstract

Objectives

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe multi-systemic organ manifestations including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the treatment of choice in severe MPS I (MPS IH, Hurler syndrome). However, the effect of HSCT on OSAS in MPS IH still remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to analyze respiratory patterns during sleep following HSCT in MPS IH children and to relate these findings to craniofacial abnormalities.

Methods

Overnight polysomnographies of nine MPS IH children (mean age: 8.2 years) previously treated with HSCT were retrospectively analyzed. Magnetic resonance images of the head were assessed with regard to soft and hard tissue abnormalities of the upper respiratory tract.

Results

The mean apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was 5.3 events/h (range, 0.3–12.2), and the majority of apnea/hypopneas were obstructive. Whereas two patients had severe OSAS (AHI > 10) and two moderate OSAS (5 > AHI < 10), five patients had no evidence of OSAS (AHI < 2.0). Donor cell chimerism was significantly lower in MPS IH patients with OSAS as compared to patients without OSAS (p < 0.001). The upper airway space and the maxilla were significantly smaller and the adenoids larger in MPS IH patients with OSAS as compared to those of non-OSAS patients.

Conclusion

OSAS was only observed in MPS IH patients with graft failure or low donor cell chimerism. Conversely, successful HSCT seems to ameliorate adenoid hyperplasia and maxillary constriction in MPS IH patients and thereby minimizes the risk of OSAS at least at younger ages.

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