16.01.2022 | Sleep Breathing Physiology and Disorders • Original Article
Obstructive sleep apnea in diabetic patients is associated with higher healthcare utilization
Ritwick Agrawal, Andrew M. Spiegelman, Venkata D. Bandi, Max Hirshkowitz, Amir Sharafkhaneh
Sleep and Breathing
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a frequent comorbid condition in patients with type 2 diabetic (T2DM). Concomitant OSA is associated with a detrimental impact on metabolic control. Both OSA and T2DM independently lead to increased cardiovascular disease and mortality. The impact of OSA on the acceleration of organ dysfunction leading to increased healthcare utilization is unknown.
This is a retrospective case–control cohort study, a secondary analysis utilizing a nationwide dataset. Patients who underwent elective surgical procedures from 2009 to 2014 were identified. Among these patients, we compared patients with obstructive sleep apnea and those without obstructive sleep apnea. Exact 1:1 matching was performed based on similar characteristics such as age, sex, geographic location, surgical facility environment, performing surgeon, and severity of illness during hospitalization. The subgroup of patients with T2DM with or without OSA was analyzed for post-discharge hospital admissions, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, emergency room (ER) visits, and outpatient visits.
Among 47,719 matched patients of the initial study, this subgroup included 4,567 patients with diabetes and OSA and 3,842 patients with diabetes but no OSA. In the presence of comorbid OSA, patients with T2DM had higher odds of increased healthcare utilization among all the outcomes: inpatient visits increased with an odds ratio of 2.50 (confidence interval (CI) 2.28–2.74) and ICU admissions 1.96 (CI 1.73–2.25) ER 1.93 **(CI 1.75–2.12) and outpatient visits 2.18 (CI 2.00–2.38). Future healthcare utilization per 100 patient-years was also increased significantly among all outcomes (p < 0.0001).
In patients with diabetes undergoing elective surgery, the presence of OSA was associated with higher future healthcare utilization.