External and intraocular infections can lead to visual impairments, which is a major public health problem. Bacteria are the most frequent pathogens affecting ocular structures; the increasing rate of antimicrobial drug resistance is a worldwide concern. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of bacteria in ocular infections, their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and risk factors in bacterial ocular infection.
A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2015 to December 2015 at Quiha Ophthalmic Hospital, Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Ocular specimens from blepharitis, blepharoconjunctivitis, conjunctivitis, keratitis, endophthalmitis, periorbital cellulitis and dacrocystitis were collected from 270 individuals with suspected ocular infection. Data on sociodemographic and risk factors were also collected using a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 and 0.05 with a corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was considered statistically significant.
Among 270 study subjects, 180 (66.7%) were culture positive for different bacterial isolates. The predominant bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (40, 22.2%), coagulase negative staphylococci (31, 17.2%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21, 11.7%). Ocular surface disease, ocular trauma, hospitalization and cosmetic application practices were significantly associated with the occurrence of bacterial infection. Concerning antimicrobial susceptibility, most isolates were susceptible to amikacin (137, 93.2%), gentamicin (131, 89.1%) and ciprofloxacin (141, 89.2%). Overall, 40 (22.5%), 34 (19.1%) and 62 (34.8%) isolates were resistant to one, two, and three or more antimicrobials, respectively.
Bacteria were isolated from the majority of the study subjects. More than half of the bacterial isolates were resistant at least to one drug and a significant rate of multidrug resistance was detected. Therefore, identification of the etiologic agent and antimicrobial susceptibility testing should be practiced to select the appropriate antimicrobial agent to treat eye infections and prevent the emergence of drug resistant bacteria.
Samuel SO, Enock ME, Ekozien MI, Ehimen M, Nmorsi OPG, Omoti AE. Pattern of bacterial Conjunctivitis in Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital. Nigeria J Microbiol Biotech Res. 2012;2(4):516–20.
Tesfaye T, Beyene G, Gelaw Y, Bekele S, Saravanan M. Bacterial Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of External Ocular Infections in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Southwest Ethiopia AJIDM. 2013;1(1):13–20. CrossRef
Khosravi AD, Mehdinejad M, Heidari M. Bacteriological findings in patients with ocular infection and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolated pathogens. Singapore Med J. 2007;48(8):741–3. PubMed
Amsalu A, Abebe T, Mihre A, Delelegn D, Tadess E. Potential bacterial pathogens of external ocular infections and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern at Hawassa University teaching and referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2015;9(14):1012–119. CrossRef
Summaiya M, Neeta K, Sangita R. Ocular infections: rational approach to antibiotic therapy. Natl J Med Res. 2012;2(1):22–4.
Kaliamurthy J, Kalavathy MC, Parmar P, Jesudasan N, Philip A, Thomas. Spectrum of Bacterial Keratitis at a Tertiary Eye Care Centre in India. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:1–8. CrossRef
Idu FK, Odjimogho SE. Susceptibility of conjunctival bacterial pathogens to fluoroquinolones.A comparative study of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Online J Health Allied Scs. 2003;2(3):1–5.
Epling J. Bacterial conjunctivitis. Clin Evid. 2012;2:704.
Buznach N, Dagan R, Greenberg D. Clinical and bacterial characteristics of acute bacterial conjunctivitis in children in the antibiotic resistance era. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;24:823–8. CrossRef
Ubani, Ahanna U. Common bacterial isolates from infected eye. JNOA. 2009;15:40–7.
Zaidi T, Yoong P, Pier GB. Staphylococcus aureus Corneal Infections: Effect of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) and Antibody to PVL on Virulence and Pathology. IOVS. 2013;54(7):4430–8.
Forrester JV, Xu H. Goodnews badnews: the Yin and Yang of immune privilege in the eye. Front Immunol. 2012;3(338):1–18.
Baron J, Miller JM, Weinstein P, Richter S, Gilligan P, Thomson B, et al. A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2013 Recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57(4):22–121. CrossRef
Therese KL, Madhavan HN. Microbiological Procedures for Diagnosis of Ocular Infections. www.ijmm.org/documents/ocular/pdf. Accessed 5 Aug 2015.
Parija SC. Text Book of Practical Microbiology. 1st ed. Banglore: Ahuja publishers; 2006.
Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. Part 2. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2006. CrossRef
Clinical and Laboratory standards Institute (CLSI). Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests, vol. 34. Wayne: Twenty-Fourth Informational Supplement; 2014. p. 1.
Magiorakos A-P, Srinivasan A, Carey RB, Carmeli Y, Falagas ME, Giske CG, et al. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pan drug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:268–81. CrossRefPubMed
Aghadoost D, Khorshidi A. Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Ocular Surface Bacterial Flora. J Infect Dis Antimicrob Agents. 2005;22(2):53–7.
Namitha BN, Mahalakshmi, Rao A. Aerobic Bacteriological Profile in Cases of Ocular Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital (Navodaya Medical College and Research Centre, Raichur). IOSR-JDMS. 2014;13(11):14–21. CrossRef
Blanco C, Nunez MX. Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococci isolates from patients with chronic conjunctivitis: including risk factors and clinical evaluation. J Ocul Pharmacol TH. 2013;29(9):803–8. CrossRef
Mshangila B, Paddy M, Kajumbula H, Ateenyi-Agaba C, Kahwa B, Seni J. External ocular surface bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among pre-operative cataract patients at Mulago National Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. BMC Ophthalmol. 2013;13:71. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Chirinos-Saldana P, Lucio B, Hernandez-Camarena JC, Navas A, Ramirez-Miranda A, Vizuet-Garcia L. Clinical and microbiological profile of infectious Keratitis in children. BMC Ophthalmol. 2013;13(54):1471–2415.
Abdullah FE, Khan MI, Waheed S. Current pattern of antibiotic resistance of clinical isolates among conjunctival swabs. Pak J Med Sci. 2013;29(1):81–4.
Dias C, Gonçalves M, Joao A. Epidemiological Study of Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Conjunctivitis in a Level III Neonatal Unit. Sci World J. 2013;2013:1–5. CrossRef
Das S, Constantinou M, Daniell M, Taylor HR. Moraxella keratitis: predisposing factors and Clinical review of 95 cases. Br J Opthalmol. 2006;90:1236–12368. CrossRef
Biradar S, Chandrashekhar DK, Gangane R, Chandrakanth C, Biradar KG, VinodKumar CS. Spectrum of microbial keratitis and antimicrobial susceptibility at tertiary care teaching Hospital in north Karnataka. Int J Pharm Biomed Res. 2012;3(2):117–20.
- Ocular bacterial infections at Quiha Ophthalmic Hospital, Northern Ethiopia: an evaluation according to the risk factors and the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
Mail Icon II