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24.01.2018 | Original Research | Ausgabe 2/2018

Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer 2/2018

Opium Consumption and the Incidence of Cancer: Does Opium Account as an Emerging Risk Factor for Gastrointestinal Cancer?

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer > Ausgabe 2/2018
Autoren:
Mohammed Azeez Alzaidi, Hossein Ali Arab, Saeid Amanpour, Reza Shirkoohi, Samad Muhammadnejad, Farhang Sasani
Wichtige Hinweise
The original version of this article was revised: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the author group section. The correct name of the fourth author is “Reza Shirkoohi.”
A correction to this article is available online at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s12029-018-0086-3.

Abstract

Purpose

Some epidemiological studies have shown an association between opium consumption and the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of opium on the initiation of GI cancer in rats.

Methods

Forty-five rats were randomly divided into three groups; each received different treatment for 40 weeks. The rats in group 1 received purified water, while animals in group 2 were treated with 5 mg/kg diethylnitrosamine (DEN) orally for 8 weeks and continued with purified water by the end of the experiment. The third experimental group received 300 mg/kg opium for 16 weeks and then continued with 50 mg/kg phenobarbital by the end of the 40th week. The growth of tumors in the treated groups was assessed by histological changes and the up/down expression of p53, cdkn1, cdk2, e-cdh, and n-cdh genes in different parts of GI tract.

Results

Histological examinations revealed that DEN was able to induce the growth of tumor in GI tract as shown by active mitotic figure in different regions of GI system and hyperplasia of hepatocytes associated with infiltration of inflammatory cells, intestinal villous hypertrophy, and colorectal adenoma. There was also significant (p < 0.05) overexpression of p53, cdk2, and n-Cdh genes in different parts of digestive system in DEN-treated group. However, these pathological changes and the degradation of gene expression were not observed in the opium-treated group.

Conclusion

The results of this study suggest that the opium does not promote the initiation of cancer in GI tract.

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