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01.12.2012 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Malaria Journal 1/2012

Optimizing the HRP-2 in vitro malaria drug susceptibility assay using a reference clone to improve comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates

Malaria Journal > Ausgabe 1/2012
Wiriya Rutvisuttinunt, Suwanna Chaorattanakawee, Stuart D Tyner, Paktiya Teja-isavadharm, Youry Se, Kritsanai Yingyuen, Panjaporn Chaichana, Delia Bethell, Douglas S Walsh, Chanthap Lon, Mark Fukuda, Duong Socheat, Harald Noedl, Kurt Schaecher, David L Saunders
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1475-2875-11-325) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Wiriya Rutvisuttinunt, Suwanna Chaorattanakawee contributed equally to this work.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
The views expressed in this article are those of the author(s) and do not reflect the official policy of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government. All human use research received the required ethical approvals from the appropriate authorities.

Authors’ contributions

Study design: WR, KS, SDT. Conducted experiments, collected and analysed data: WR, SC, SDT, PT, KY, PC, YS, DB, CL, KS. Data interpretation, manuscript preparation: SC, PT, DSW, WR, DLS. Project oversight: SDT, MMF, KS, HN, DS and DLS. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



Apparent emerging artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Southeast Asia requires development of practical tools to monitor for resistant parasites. Although in vitro anti-malarial susceptibility tests are widely used, uncertainties remain regarding interpretation of P. falciparum field isolate values.


Performance parameters of the W2 P. falciparum clone (considered artemisinin “sensitive”) were evaluated as a reference for the HRP-2 immediate ex vivo assay. Variability in W2 IC50s was assessed, including intra- and inter-assay variability among and between technicians in multiple experiments, over five freeze-thaw cycles, over five months of continuous culture, and before and after transport of drug-coated plates to remote field sites. Nominal drug plate concentrations of artesunate (AS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) were verified by LC-MS analysis. Plasmodium falciparum field isolate IC50s for DHA from subjects in an artemisinin-resistant area in Cambodia were compared with W2 susceptibility.


Plate drug concentrations and day-to-day technical assay performance among technicians were important sources of variability for W2 IC50s within and between assays. Freeze-thaw cycles, long-term continuous culture, and transport to and from remote sites had less influence. Despite variability in W2 susceptibility, the median IC50s for DHA for Cambodian field isolates were higher (p <0.0001) than the W2 clone (3.9 nM), both for subjects with expected (less than 72 hours; 6.3 nM) and prolonged (greater or equal to 72 hours; 9.6 nM) parasite clearance times during treatment with artesunate monotherapy.


The W2 reference clone improved the interpretability of field isolate susceptibility from the immediate ex vivo HRP-2 assay from areas of artemisinin resistance. Methods to increase the reproducibility of plate coating may improve overall assay interpretability and utility.
Authors’ original file for figure 1
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