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18.11.2019 | Original Paper

Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in 390 Patients: Analysis of Clinical and Histological Criteria Which Significantly Impact Outcome

Zeitschrift:
Head and Neck Pathology
Autoren:
Lester D. R. Thompson, Raoul Burchette, Shawn Iganej, Onita Bhattasali
Wichtige Hinweise

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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s12105-019-01096-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Abstract

This study evaluates the prognostic impact of several factors in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), controlling for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated tumors and stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition). All patients in Southern California Permanente Medical Group diagnosed with OPSCC between 2006 and 2012 tested for p16 immunohistochemistry were included. Review of all pathology materials was combined with central p16 testing. Multivariable analyses were performed. The cohort of 390 patients included 342 p16-positive and 48 p16-negative tumors. For all-comers, on univariate analysis, the following factors, when present, were associated with improved patient survival: p16-positive tumor (n = 324, p < 0.001); crypt versus surface tumor location (n = 312, p = 0.004); nonkeratinizing type (n = 309, p < 0.0001); nonkeratinizing with maturation type (n = 37, p < 0.0001); basaloid pattern (n = 284, p = 0.005); and a broad, pushing border of infiltration (n = 282, p = 0.004). Inferior survival outcomes were observed with: age ≥ 55 years (p < 0.0001); ≥ 10 pack-year smoking history (n = 183, p = 0.003); increasing tumor stage (p < 0.0001); overt radiographic extranodal extension (ORENE) (n = 58, p < 0.0001); low level IV/Vb lymph node involvement (n = 45, p = 0.0002); a jagged pattern of infiltration (n = 76, p = 0.0004); tumor ulceration (n = 76, p = 0.0004); absent lymphocytic infiltrate (p < 0.0001); and concurrent dysplasia (n = 125, p = 0.009). On multivariable analysis, accounting for patient age, smoking history ≥ 10 pack-years, and TNM stage, for patients with p16-positive disease, advanced TNM stage (p = 0.007), the presence of ORENE (p = 0.0002), and low-neck lymphadenopathy (p = 0.0001) were independent negative prognostic factors for disease free survival (DFS). Older age (p < 0.0001), smoking history ≥ 10 pack-years (p = 0.02), advanced TNM stage (p = 0.0002), ORENE (p = 0.004), and low-neck lymphadenopathy (p = 0.002) were independent negative prognostic factors for OS. Among patients with p16-positive OPSCC, older age, smoking history, advanced stage, ORENE, and low-neck lymphadenopathy were significant negative prognostic factors for DFS and/or OS. Further refinement of staging to incorporate additional lymph node findings may be warranted.

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