The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-017-0692-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Despite knowing better how to screen older adults, understanding how frailty progression might be modified is unclear. We explored effects of modifiable and non-modifiable factors on changes in frailty in community-dwelling adults aged 50+ years who participated in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos).
Rates of change in frailty over 10 years were examined using the 30-item CaMos Frailty Index (CFI). Incident and prevalent low-trauma fractures were categorized by fracture site into hip, clinical vertebral and non-hip-non-vertebral fractures. Multivariable generalized estimating equation models accounted for the time of frailty assessment (baseline, 5 and 10 years), sex, age, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), physical activity, bone mineral density, antiresorptive therapy, health-related quality of life (HRQL), cognitive status, and other factors for frailty or fractures. Multiple imputation and scenario analyses addressed bias due to attrition or missing data.
The cohort included 5566 women (mean ± standard deviation: 66.8 ± 9.3 years) and 2187 men (66.3 ± 9.5 years) with the mean baseline CFI scores of 0.15 ± 0.11 and 0.12 ± 0.10, respectively. Incident fractures and obesity most strongly predicted frailty progression in multivariable analyses. The impact of fractures differed between the sexes. With each incident hip fracture, the adjusted mean CFI accelerated per 5 years by 0.07 in women (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03 to 0.11) and by 0.12 in men (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.16). An incident vertebral fracture increased frailty in women (0.05, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.08) but not in men (0.01, 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.09). Irrespective of sex and prevalent fractures, baseline obesity was associated with faster frailty progression: a 5-year increase in the adjusted mean CFI ranged from 0.01 in overweight (BMI: 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2) to 0.10 in obese individuals (BMI: ≥ 40 kg/m2). Greater physical activity and better HRQL decreased frailty over time. The results remained robust in scenario analyses.
Older women and men with new vertebral fractures, hip fractures or obesity represent high-risk groups that should be considered for frailty interventions.
Additional file 1: Table S1. The CaMos Frailty Index. This document presents a table that describes 30 items included in the Camos Frailty Index. Source: Kennedy CC, Ioannidis G, Rockwood K, Thabane L, Adachi JD, Kirkland S, et al. A Frailty Index predicts 10-year fracture risk in adults age 25 years and older: results from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). Osteoporos Int. 2014; 25:2825–32. Obtained with copyright permission (November 14,2017). (DOC 100 kb)12877_2017_692_MOESM1_ESM.doc
Additional file 2: Additional Results. This document presents additional results of the analysis. It contains 2 figures (Supplemental Figures S1a and S1b) and 23 tables (Supplemental Tables S1 to S23) (DOCX 281 kb)12877_2017_692_MOESM2_ESM.docx
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- Osteoporotic fractures and obesity affect frailty progression: a longitudinal analysis of the Canadian multicentre osteoporosis study
Andy Kin On Wong
Jonathan D. Adachi
For the CaMos Research Group
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