This article is part of the Topical Collection on Demyelinating Disorders
Paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) represents less than 5 % of the MS population, but patients with paediatric-onset disease reach permanent disability at a younger age than adult-onset patients. Accurate diagnosis at presentation and optimal long-term treatment are vital to mitigate ongoing neuroinflammation and irreversible neurodegeneration. However, it may be difficult to early differentiate paediatric MS from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), as they often have atypical presentation that differs from that of adult-onset MS. The purpose of this review is to summarize the updated views on diagnostic criteria, imaging, histopathology and treatment choices.
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- Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis: Update on Diagnostic Criteria, Imaging, Histopathology and Treatment Choices
William P. Whitehouse
Cris S. Constantinescu
- Springer US