The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
SKD and RJK conceptualized the study. RJK completed the main data analysis and the preparation of manuscript. SKD, SG, PRC and RX contributed to the study design, interpretation of data, and the preparation of manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of five metabolic risk factors including abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and impaired fasting glucose. Few studies have fully reported the strength of clustering of these risk factors in a parent-offspring relationship. This analysis describes the associations between parents and their adult offspring in regard to MetS. It also estimates the association between each risk factor in parents and the presence of MetS in their offspring.
We analyzed data for 1193 offspring (565 sons, and 628 daughters) from the Framingham Offspring Study who attended examinations 5, 6, and 7. Information about their parents was collected from examinations 13, 14 and 15 of the Framingham Original Cohort study. We used pedigree file to combine parental and offspring’s data. Participants were classified as having the MetS according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Analyses were conducted separately for mothers and fathers. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations.
After adjusting for age, education, smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity level of offspring, no significant association was found between father’s and their offspring’s MetS. Mother’s MetS was significantly and positively associated with their daughter’s MetS (adjusted odds ratio or adj OR: 1.63; 95% confidence Interval, CI:1.02-2.61), but not with their sons’ MetS. When analyzed by individual components, maternal impaired glucose (adj OR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.02- 9.31), abdominal obesity (adj OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 0.98- 2.55) and low HDL-C (adj OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.36-3.32) were associated daughter’s MetS. Maternal low HDL-C and raised total cholesterol showed marginal association with son’s MetS. For fathers, only impaired glucose (adj OR: 4.91; 95% CI: 2.07- 11.68) was associated with their daughter’s MetS.
Using the data from Framingham Heart Study, we demonstrate differential association of MetS and its components between parents and offspring. Mother’s MetS was strongly related with daughter’s MetS, but the association was inconsistent with son’s MetS. No association was found between father’s MetS and offspring’s Mets. These results provide evidence that daughters with mother’s MetS are in higher risk than daughters or sons with father’s MetS.
Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Jama. 2001, 285 (19): 2486-2497. 10.1001/jama.285.19.2486.
Feng Y, Zang T, Xu X: Familial aggregation of metabolic syndrome and its components in a large Chinese population. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008, 16 (1): 125-129. 10.1038/oby.2007.22. CrossRef
Kristiansson K, Perola M, Tikkanen E, Kettunen J, Surakka I, Havulinna AS, Stančáková A, Barnes C, Widen E, Kajantie E, Eriksson JG, Viikari J, Kähönen M, Lehtimäki T, Raitakari OT, Hartikainen AL, Ruokonen A, Pouta A, Jula A, Kangas AJ, Soininen P, Ala-Korpela M, Männistö S, Jousilahti P, Bonnycastle LL, Järvelin MR, Kuusisto J, Collins FS, Laakso M, Hurles ME: Genome-wide screen for metabolic syndrome susceptibility loci reveals strong lipid gene contribution but no evidence for common genetic basis for clustering of metabolic syndrome traits. Circulation: Cardiovasc Gen. 2012, 5 (2): 242-249. 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.111.961482.
Kannel WB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Garrison RJ, Castelli WP: An investigation of coronary heart disease in families. The Framingham offspring study. Am J Epidemiol. 1979, 110 (3): 281-290. PubMed
Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2012. Diabetes Care. 2012, 35 (1): S11-S63.
Patel R, Martin RM, Kramer MS, Oken E, Bogdanovich N, Matush L, Smith GD, Lawlor DA: Familial associations of adiposity: findings from a cross-sectional study of 12,181 parental-offspring trios from Belarus. PLoS One. 2011, 6 (1): 0014607-10.1371/journal.pone.0014607. CrossRef
Kivimaki M, Lawlor DA, Smith GD, Elovainio M, Jokela M, Keltikangas-Jarvinen L, Viikari JS, Raitakari OT: Substantial intergenerational increases in body mass index are not explained by the fetal overnutrition hypothesis: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007, 86 (5): 1509-1514. PubMed
Fleten C, Nystad W, Stigum H, Skjaerven R, Lawlor DA, Davey Smith G, Naess O: Parent-offspring body mass index associations in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study: a family-based approach to studying the role of the intrauterine environment in childhood adiposity. Am J Epidemiol. 2012, 176 (2): 83-92. 10.1093/aje/kws134. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
Linares Segovia B, Gutierrez Tinoco M, Izquierdo Arrizon A, Guizar Mendoza JM, Amador Licona N: Long-term consequences for offspring of paternal diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Exp Diabetes Res. 2012, 684562 (10): 5-
Barker DJ: In utero programming of chronic disease. Clin Sci (Lond). 1998, 95 (2): 115-128. 10.1042/CS19980019. CrossRef
Wolff GL, Kodell RL, Moore SR, Cooney CA: Maternal epigenetics and methyl supplements affect agouti gene expression in Avy/a mice. Faseb J. 1998, 12 (11): 949-957. PubMed
Jacobi D, Caille A, Borys JM, Lommez A, Couet C, Charles MA, Oppert JM: Parent-offspring correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity. PLoS One. 2011, 6 (12): 28- CrossRef
Athyros VG, Ganotakis ES, Tziomalos K, Papageorgiou AA, Anagnostis P, Griva T, Kargiotis K, Mitsiou EK, Karagiannis A, Mikhailidis DP: Comparison of four definitions of the metabolic syndrome in a Greek (Mediterranean) population. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010, 26 (3): 713-719. 10.1185/03007991003590597. CrossRefPubMed
Hennekens CH, Buring JE: Epidemiology in Medicine, 1st edn. 1987, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
- Parent-offspring association of metabolic syndrome in the Framingham Heart Study
Rumana J Khan
Samson Y Gebreab
Sharon K Davis
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
Mail Icon II