The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11121-016-0733-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
This meta-analysis focuses on parent training programs for ethnic minority families and reports on (i) the adaptation of program content and (ii) the process that informs these adaptations. Relevant studies are reviewed to determine the adaptations made and the impact of the adaptations on parenting and child outcomes. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they enrolled predominantly ethnic minority parents with children aged 0–12 years, used a randomized controlled trial design with post-intervention assessments, focused on group-based parent training programs and on prevention of parenting problems, and reported parenting behavior outcomes. A total of 18 studies were included in the analysis. The results show that parent training programs targeting ethnic minority parents have a small but significant effect on improving parenting behavior (k = 18, Cohen’s d = 0.30), child outcomes (k = 16, Cohen’s d = 0.13), and parental perspectives (k = 8, Cohen’s d = 0.19). Most of the programs made adaptations related to surface and deep structure sensitivity. Programs with cultural adaptations, especially deep structure sensitivity (k = 7, Cohen’s d = 0.54), are more effective in improving parenting behavior. Because only a third of the included studies provided details on the processes that guided the adaptations made, additional studies are needed to provide information on the process of adaptation; this will enable others to learn from the procedures that can be undertaken to culturally adapt interventions.
ESM 1 (DOCX 134 kb)11121_2016_733_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Abidin, R. R. (2015). Parenting stress index manual. Charlottesville: Pediatric Psychology Press.
Arnold, D. S., O’Leary, S. G., Wolff, L. S., & Acker, M. M. (1993). The parenting scale: A measure of dysfunctional parenting in discipline situations. Psychological Assessment, 5, 137–144. CrossRef
Baumann, A.A., Powell, B.J., Kohl, P.L., Tabak, R.G., Penalba, V., Proctor, E.K.,…Cabassa, L.J. (2015). Cultural adaptation and implementation of evidence-baed parent-training: A systematic review and critique of guiding evidence. Children and Youth Services Review, 53, 113-120.
Bernal, G., Jiménez-Chafey, M. I., & Domenech Rodríguez, M. M. (2009). Cultural adaptation of treatments: A resource for considering culture in evidence-based practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40, 361–368. CrossRef
* Bjørknes, R., & Manger, T. (2013). Can parent training alter parent practice and reduce conduct problems in ethnic minority children? A randomized controlled trial. Prevention Science, 14(1), 52-63.
Borenstein, M., Rothstein, D., & Cohen, J. (2000). Comprehensive meta-analysis:A computer program for research synthesis [computer software]. Englewood: Biostat.
* Brotman, L. M., Calzada, E., Huang, K. Y., Kingston, S., Dawson-McClure, S., Kamboukos, D.,…Petkova, E. (2011). Promoting effective parenting practices and preventing child behavior problems in school among ethnically diverse families from underserved, urban communities. Child Development, 82(1), 258-276.
Cardona, J.R.P., Domenech-Rodriguez, M., Forgatch, M., Sullivan, C., Bybee, D., Holtrop, K.,…Bernal, G. (2012). Culturally adapting an evidence-based parenting intervention for Latino immigrants: The need to integrate fidelity and cultural relevance. Family Process, 51(1), 56-72.
* Coard, S.I., Foy-Watson, S., Zimmer, C., & Wallace, A. (2007). Considering culturally relevant parenting practices in intervention development and adaptation: A Randomized controlled trial of the black Parenting strengths and strategies (BPSS) program. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(6), 797-820.
* Day, C., Michelson, D., Thomson, S., Penney, C., & Draper, L. (2012). Evaluation of a peer led parenting intervention for disruptive behaviour problems in children: community based randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 344, e1107.
Eyberg, S. M., & Robinson, E. A. (1983). Conduct problem behavior: Standardization of a behavioral rating scale with adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 12, 347–354.
* Fagan, J., & Stevenson, H.C. (2002). An experimental study of an empowerment-based intervention for African American Head Start fathers. Family Relations, 51(3), 191.
Ferrer-Wreder, L., Snudell, K., & Mansoory, S. (2012). Tinkering with perfection: Theory development in the intervention cultural adaptation field. Child and Youth Care Forum, 41, 149–171. CrossRef
Furlong, M., McGilloway, S., Bywater, T., Hutchings, J., Smith, S. M., & Donnelly, M. (2012). Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, Cd008225.
* Ghosh Ippen, C. M. (1999). Testing the feasibility and effectiveness of a multicomponent program: including parent-training, child competencies training, and tutoring. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 60(2).
* Gottfredson, D., Kumpfer, K., Polizzi-Fox, D., Wilson, D., Puryear, V., Beatty, P., & Vilmenay, M. (2006). The Strengthening Washington D.C. Families project: A randomized effectiveness trial of family-based prevention. Prevention Science, 7(1), 57-74.
Griner, D., & Smith, T. B. (2006). Culturally adapted mental health intervention: A meta-analytic review. Psychotherapy (Chicago III), 43, 531–548. CrossRef
* Gross, D., Fogg, L., Webster-Stratton, C., Garvey, C., Julion, W., & Grady, J. (2003). Parent training of toddlers in day care in low-income urban communities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(2), 261-278.
* Gross, D., Garvey, C., Julion, W., Fogg, L., Tucker, S., & Mokros, H. (2009). Efficacy of the Chicago parent program with low-income African American and Latino parents of young children. Prevention Science, 10(1), 54-65.
Hertzog, M. A. (2008). Considerations in determining sample size for pilot studies. Research in Nursing & Health, 31, 180–191. CrossRef
Johnson, B. T. (1993). DSTAT 1.10: Software for the meta-analytic review of literatures [computer software and manual]. New Jersey: Erlbaum, Hillsdale.
* Kim, E., Cain, K.C., & Webster-Stratton, C. (2008). The preliminary effect of a parenting program for Korean American mothers: A randomized controlled experimental study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45(9), 1261-1273.
* Kim, E., Cain, K., Boutain, D., Chun, J.J., Kim, S., & Im, H. (2014). Pilot study of the Korean Parent Training Program using a partial group randomized experimental study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 27(3), 121-131.
* Lau, A.S., Fung, J.J., Ho, L.Y., Liu, L.L., & Gudino, O.G. (2011). Parent training with high-risk immigrant chinese families: A pilot group randomized trial yielding practice-based evidence. Behaviour Therapy, 42(3), 413-426.
* Leijten, P., Raaijmakers, M.A., Orobio de, C.B., van den Ban, E., & Matthys, W. (2015). Effectiveness of the incredible years parenting program for families with socioeconomically disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 18, 1-15.
Leijten, P., Raaijmakers, M. A., de Castro, B. O., & Matthys, W. (2013). Does socioeconomic status matter? A meta-analysis on parent training effectiveness for disruptive child behavior. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42, 384–392. CrossRef
Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks: California: Sage.
* Matsumoto, Y., Sofronoff, K., & Sanders, M.R. (2007). The efficacy and acceptability of the triple P-positive parenting program with Japanese parents. Behaviour Change, 24(4), 205-218.
Mejia, A., Leijten, P., Lachman, J.M., & Parra-Cardona, J.R. (2016). Different strokes for different folks? Contrasting approaches to cultural adaptation of parenting interventions. Prevention Science, 1-10.
Morawska, A., Sanders, M., Goadby, E., Headley, C., Hodge, L., McAuliffe, C.,…Anderson, E. (2011). Is the triple p-positive parenting program acceptable to parents from culturally diverse backgrounds? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 614-622.
Resnicow, K., Baranowski, T., Ahluwalia, J. S., & Braithwaite, R. L. (1999). Cultural sensitivity in public health: Defined and demystified. Ethnicity and Disease, 9, 10–21. PubMed
Robinson, E. R., & Eyberg, S. (1978). Systematic behavioral observation of normal and behavior problem children. Toronto: Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association.
Rosenthal, R. (1979). The file drawer problem and tolerenace for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 638–641. CrossRef
* Taylor, J. A., Davis, R. L., & Kemper, K. J. (1997). A randomized controlled trial of group versus individual well child care for high-risk children: maternal-child interaction and developmental outcomes. Pediatrics, 99(6), E9.
* Turner, K.M., Richards, M., & Sanders, M.R. (2007). Randomised clinical trial of a group parent education programme for Australian Indigenous families. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 43(6), 429-437.
Viera, A. J., & Garrett, J. M. (2005). Understanding interobserver agreement: The kappa statistic. Family Medicine, 37, 360–363. PubMed
* Webster-Stratton, C. (1998). Preventing conduct problems in Head Start children: Strengthening parenting competencies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 715-730.
* Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M.J., & Hammond, M. (2001). Preventing conduct problems, promoting social competence: A parent and teacher training partnership in head start. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 30(3), 283-302.
- Parent Training Programs for Ethnic Minorities: a Meta-analysis of Adaptations and Effect
K. van Mourik
M. R. Crone
M. S. de Wolff
- Springer US