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01.12.2018 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Psychiatry 1/2018

Patients admitted to hospital after suicide attempt with violent methods compared to patients with deliberate self-poisoning -a study of background variables, somatic and psychiatric health and suicidal behavior

Zeitschrift:
BMC Psychiatry > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
Per Sverre Persett, Tine K. Grimholt, Oivind Ekeberg, Dag Jacobsen, Hilde Myhren

Abstract

Background

In Norway, there are about 550 suicides recorded each year. The number of suicide attempts is 10–15 times higher. Suicide attempt is a major risk factor for suicide, in particular when violent methods are used. Suicide attempts with violent methods have hardly been studied in Norway. This study describes demographic, psychiatric and somatic health in patients admitted to somatic hospitals in Norway after suicide attempt by violent methods compared with suicide attempters using deliberate self-poisoning (DSP).

Methods

Patients admitted to somatic hospital after suicide attempt aged > 18 years were included in a prospective cohort study, enrolled from December 2010 to April 2015.
Demographics (gender, age, marital and living condition, educational and employment status), previous somatic and psychological health were registered. Patients who had used violent methods were compared with patients admitted after suicide attempt by DSP.

Results

The study included 80 patients with violent methods and 81 patients with DSP (mean age both groups 42 yrs.). Violent methods used were cutting (34%), jumping from heights (32%), hanging (14%), others (10%), shooting (7%) and drowning (4%).
Patients with violent methods had more often psychosis than patients admitted with DSP (14% vs 4%, p <  0.05), less anxiety disorders (4% vs 19%, p <  0.01) and less affective disorders (21% vs. 36%, p <  0.05). There were no significant differences between the numbers of patients who received psychiatric treatment at the time of the suicide attempt (violent 55% versus DSP 48%) or reported previous suicide attempt, 58% in patients with violent methods and 47% in DSP. Patients with violent methods stayed longer in hospital (14.3 (mean 8.3–20.3) vs. 2.3 (mean 1.6–3.1) days, p <  0.001), stayed longer in intensive care unit (5 days vs. 0.5 days, p <  0.001) and were in need of longer mechanical ventilation (1.4 vs 0.1 days, p <  0.001).

Conclusions

Patients with violent methods had more often psychosis, less anxiety disorders and affective disorders than patients with DSP. Psychiatric treatment before the attempt and previous suicide attempt was not significantly different between the groups and about half of the patients in both groups were in psychiatric treatment at the time of the suicide attempt.
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