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12.06.2018 | Original Contribution | Ausgabe 3/2018

EcoHealth 3/2018

Patterns of Bird–Bacteria Associations

Zeitschrift:
EcoHealth > Ausgabe 3/2018
Autoren:
Deanna M. Chung, Elise Ferree, Dawn M. Simon, Pamela J. Yeh
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10393-018-1342-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Birds, with their broad geographic ranges and close association with humans, have historically played an important role as carriers of human disease and as reservoirs for drug-resistant bacteria. Here, we examine scientific literature over a 15-year timespan to identify reported avian-bacterial associations and factors that may impact zoonotic disease emergence by classifying traits of bird species and their bacteria. We find that the majority of wild birds studied were migratory, in temperate habitats, and in the order Passeriformes. The highest diversity of bacteria was found on birds in natural habitats. The most frequently reported bacteria were Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Campylobacter jejuni. Of the bacteria species reported, 54% have shown pathogenicity toward humans. Percentage-wise, more pathogens were found in tropical (vs. temperate) habitats and natural (vs. suburban, urban, or agricultural) habitats. Yet, only 22% were tested for antibiotic resistance, and of those tested, 75% of bacteria species were resistant to at least one antibiotic. There were no significant patterns of antibiotic resistance in migratory versus non-migratory birds, temperate versus tropical areas, or different habitats. We discuss biases in detection and representation, and suggest a need for increased sampling in non-temperate zones and in a wider range of avian species.

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Zusatzmaterial
Database. We collected data from 2000 to 2015 using SCOPUS to quantify characteristics of bird–bacteria relationships using the keywords “avian” or “birds,” and “disease” or “pathogenic” and “bacteria” following PRISMA guidelines (Moher et al. 2009). “N/A” was written if no data were available for that particular data point (XLSX 529 kb)
10393_2018_1342_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx
Bird–Bacteria relationships. All of the bird and bacteria associations from this literature-based analysis. Birds are listed by order on the left. Bacteria are listed by genus on the top in gray. A red box with an “x” inside marks an association between a bird and a bacteria. There were a total of 2289 unique associations (XLSX 1257 kb)
10393_2018_1342_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx
Resistant bacteria and antibiotics by geographic region and habitat. We characterized resistant antibiotics by bacterium in different “categories,” namely, geographic regions (temperate vs. tropical) and habitats (agricultural, natural, suburban, urban, and industrial livestock). Bacteria in each category are arranged by number of resistance antibiotics, from high to low. The most right-hand column contains the total number of resistant antibiotics in each category (XLSX 19 kb)
10393_2018_1342_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx
Table 4. Resistant bacteria and antibiotics by migratory, non-migratory, or domestic bird. We characterized resistant antibiotics by bird species in different “categories,” namely, (wild) migratory bird, (wild) non-migratory bird, and domestic bird. Bacteria in each category are arranged by number of resistance antibiotics, from high to low. The most right-hand column contains the total number of resistant antibiotics in each category (XLSX 15 kb)
10393_2018_1342_MOESM4_ESM.xlsx
Resistant bacteria and antibiotics by bird order. We characterized resistant antibiotics by bacterium in different bird orders. Both wild and domestic birds are included. Bacteria in each bird order are arranged by number of resistance antibiotics, from high to low. The most right-hand column contains the total number of resistant antibiotics in each bird order (XLSX 19 kb)
10393_2018_1342_MOESM5_ESM.xlsx
Supplementary material 6 (JPEG 148 kb)
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Supplementary material 7 (JPEG 164 kb)
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Supplementary material 8 (JPEG 169 kb)
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Literatur
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