The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1749-8090-9-84) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
CP conceptualized and designed the study. MK performed a critical revision and approval of the article. ID approved the article. PF helped in the draft of the manuscript. FR did a critical revision of the atricle. RG performed the data analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Cardiac pacing is sometimes required for patients with congenital heart disease for various reasons. Because of complex anatomy, repetitive previous heart surgery and patient size, epicardial leads are of special importance in these patients. Using epicardial leads has been discussed controversly regarding pacing performance and lead survival. The aim of this study was to review the long-term data on pacing performance as well as lead survival of epicardial leads implanted in our center.
Retrospective chart review and review of the literature.
82 consecutive pediatric patients or adult patients with congenital heart disease with 158 epicardial leads (Medtronic 4968, bipolar, steroid - eluting) were included. We found 1.2% pacemaker-related early postoperative complications. The incidence of lead dysfunction was 7.5% (12/158) for primary (i.e. directly related to the lead itself) lead dysfunction and 3.2% (5/158) of lead abandonment for reasons not directly related to the lead itself. Primary lead dysfunction occured after a median of 3.83 years. Lead survival at 2, 5 and 10 years was 98.7%, 93% and 92.4%. There were no infections reported. Stable median measurements for impedance (RA/RV/LV of 577/483/610 Ohm), sensing threshold (RA/RV/LV of 2.0/11.0/10.0 mV) and pacing threshold (RA/RV/LV of 0.75 V at 0.4 ms/1.0 V at 0.49 ms/1.0 V at 0.45 ms) indicated a good mid- to longterm performance. The only risk factor for primary lead dysfunction was young age at implantation.
The use of epicardial leads in pediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease shows good longterm outcomes in terms of pacing performance and lead survival. The authors encourage using epicardial leads in patients with congenital heart disease based on the patient‘s individual characteristics.
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Janousek J, van Geldorp IE, Krupickova S, Rosenthal E, Nugent K, Tomaske M, Früh A, Elders J, Hiippala A, Kerst G, Gebauer RA, Kubus P, Frias P, Gabbarini F, Clur SA, Nabel B, Ganame J, Papagiannis J, Marek J, Tisma-Dupanovic S, Tsao S, Nürnberg JH, Wren C, Friedberg M, de Guillebon M, Volaufova J, Prinzen FW, Delhaas T, Working Group for Cardiac Dysrhythmias and Electrophysiology of the Association for Pediatric Cardiology: Permanent cardiac pacing in children: choosing the optimal pacing site: a multicenter study. Circulation. 2013, 127 (5): 613-623. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.115428. CrossRefPubMed
- Performance of steroid eluting bipolar epicardial leads in pediatric and congenital heart disease patients: 15 years of single center experience
Frank Thomas Riede
Roman Antonin Gebauer
- BioMed Central
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