01.03.2007 | Original Article | Ausgabe 3/2007
Peripheral bone mineral density and its predictors in healthy school girls from two different socioeconomic groups in Delhi
- R. K. Marwaha, N. Tandon, D. H. K. Reddy, K. Mani, S. Puri, N. Aggarwal, K. Grewal, S. Singh
Peripheral bone density measurements are scarce and the factors, which predict bone mineral density at these sites, especially in children, are not clearly known. In this study, age, height, weight and alkaline phosphatase had a significant association on peripheral bone mineral density in healthy Indian school girls.
Factors that lead to the attainment of peak bone mass at peripheral sites, during period of growth are not clearly known.
Six-hundred and sixty-four randomly selected 7- to 17-year-old girls from upper and lower socioeconomic status (USES/LSES) schools were assessed clinically and a recording of their height and weight was undertaken. Serum calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured in all of them. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the distal forearm (BMDdf) and calcaneum (BMDca) by peripheral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA).
Girls belonging to the USES were significantly taller (149.7 ± 12.3 cm vs 144.4 ± 11.9 cm; P < 0.001) and weighed more (44.3 ± 12.9 kg vs 35.9 ± 10.0 kg; P < 0.001) than girls from the LSES. USES girls had a significantly higher mean serum calcium (9.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl vs 9.2 ± 0.8 mg/dl; P < 0.05) and significantly lower alkaline phosphatase (316 ± 166 IU/l vs 423 ± 228 IU/l; P < 0.01) and iPTH (29.9 ± 18.4 pg/ml vs 45.7 ± 64.6 pg/ml; P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in mean serum phosphorus and 25-OHD levels between the two groups. USES subjects had higher BMD at both sites than LSES subjects. BMDdf and BMDca increased with age and tended to plateau by 16 years and 12 years of age respectively in both the groups. Age, height and weight explained approximately 50% of the variability, while biochemical parameters explained approximately 30% of variability in BMD at both the sites. The only biochemical parameter which had a significant association with BMD was ALP at the distal forearm.
In conclusion, age, nutrition, height and weight are significantly associated with BMD at peripheral sites.