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Erschienen in: Der Internist 3/2016

01.03.2016 | Arzneimitteltherapie

Personalisierte Arzneitherapie auf genetischer Grundlage

Möglichkeiten und Beispiele aus der Praxis

verfasst von: Prof. Dr. J. C. Stingl, K. S. Just, K. Kaumanns, M. Schurig-Urbaniak, C. Scholl, D. von Mallek, J. Brockmöller

Erschienen in: Die Innere Medizin | Ausgabe 3/2016

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Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Die Pharmakogenetik ist ein wichtiger Baustein in der Individualisierung von Therapien. Eine pharmakogenetische Diagnostik findet jedoch bislang noch wenig Anwendung in der medizinischen Praxis. Eine konsequente Berücksichtigung individueller Patientenfaktoren in der Arzneimitteltherapie kann helfen, diese sicherer und effektiver zu gestalten.

Ziel der Übersicht

Es wird ein kurzer Überblick über Strukturen und Auswirkungen von genetischen Varianten auf Arzneimittelwirkungen gegeben. Einige häufig verordnete Medikamente werden exemplarisch herausgegriffen. Des Weiteren wird die Durchführbarkeit von pharmakogenetischer Diagnostik und Dosisanpassungen beschrieben.

Datenlage

Die European Medicines Agency (EMA) als europäische Zulassungsbehörde hat bereits über 70, die U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sogar über 150 Arzneimittelinformationen um Angaben zu Biomarkern erweitert. Dies ist ein entscheidender Schritt in Richtung gezielte Therapie. Internationale Leitlinien für die Dosis- und Therapieanpassung basieren auf einer systematischen Datenauswertung der klinischen Evidenz beispielsweise durch das Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium des Pharmacogenomics Research Network.

Schlussfolgerung

Wesentlich für den Erfolg einer Arzneimitteltherapie ist auch die Berücksichtigung individueller Risikofaktoren der Patienten. Eine pharmakogenetische Diagnostik muss von konkreten Dosierungs- und Therapieempfehlungen begleitet werden, um einen Beitrag zur Individualisierung und zur Verbesserung der Sicherheit und Effizienz der Arzneimitteltherapie leisten zu können.
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Metadaten
Titel
Personalisierte Arzneitherapie auf genetischer Grundlage
Möglichkeiten und Beispiele aus der Praxis
verfasst von
Prof. Dr. J. C. Stingl
K. S. Just
K. Kaumanns
M. Schurig-Urbaniak
C. Scholl
D. von Mallek
J. Brockmöller
Publikationsdatum
01.03.2016
Verlag
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Erschienen in
Die Innere Medizin / Ausgabe 3/2016
Print ISSN: 2731-7080
Elektronische ISSN: 2731-7099
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00108-015-0013-7

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