27.04.2020 | Original Research Article | Ausgabe 9/2020
Pharmacokinetic Drug–Drug Interaction of Apalutamide, Part 1: Clinical Studies in Healthy Men and Patients with Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
- Ignacio Duran, Joan Carles, Iurie Bulat, Peter Hellemans, Anna Mitselos, Peter Ward, James Jiao, Danielle Armas, Caly Chien
Background and Objectives
Two phase I studies assessed the drug–drug interaction potential of apalutamide as a substrate and perpetrator.
Study A randomized 45 healthy men to single-dose apalutamide 240 mg alone or with strong inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 (itraconazole) or CYP2C8 (gemfibrozil). In study B, 23 patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer received probes for CYP3A4 (midazolam), CYP2C9 (warfarin), CYP2C19 (omeprazole), and CYP2C8 (pioglitazone), and transporter substrates for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (fexofenadine) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 (rosuvastatin) at baseline and after repeat once-daily administration of apalutamide 240 mg to steady state.
Systemic exposure (area under the plasma concentration–time curve) to single-dose apalutamide increased 68% with gemfibrozil but was relatively unchanged with itraconazole (study A). Apalutamide reduced systemic exposure to midazolam ↓92%, omeprazole ↓85%, S-warfarin ↓46%, fexofenadine ↓30%, rosuvastatin ↓41%, and pioglitazone ↓18% (study B). After a single dose, apalutamide is predominantly metabolized by CYP2C8, and less by CYP3A4.
Co-administration of apalutamide with CYP3A4, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, P-gp, BCRP or OATP1B1 substrates may cause loss of activity for these medications. Therefore, appropriate mitigation strategies are recommended.