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Erschienen in: Forensic Toxicology 1/2020

06.08.2019 | Minireview

Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicity of the new psychoactive substance 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC)

verfasst von: Daniela Rouxinol, Helena Carmo, Félix Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Diana Dias da Silva

Erschienen in: Forensic Toxicology | Ausgabe 1/2020

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Abstract

Purpose

To provide a review of the available data on 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), its physicochemical properties, detection methods, patterns of abuse and prevalence, biological effects, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and mechanisms of toxicity have been presented and discussed.

Methods

An exhaustive literature search was carried out with PubMed, drug use forums and blogs, and sites from governmental agencies.

Results

3,4-DMMC is a synthetic cathinone that was first detected in Europe in 2010. Its recreational use and trade in retail outlets have been prohibited in several countries, but the drug remains readily available for purchase on the Internet. 3,4-DMMC has been considered a very appealing drug to be used in combination with other abuse substances. The drug combines the features of stimulants and psychoactive phenethylamines, displays high affinity for 5-HT2 and adrenergic receptors, inhibits monoamine transporters, specially serotonin transporter, but does not promote a significant 5-HT efflux. Recently, anecdotal reports on its abuse sprang up, and 3,4-DMMC has been detected in several seized products and in blood and urine of abusers. 3,4-DMMC metabolites in the urine of habitual users showed N-demethylation, β-ketoreduction, hydroxylation, and oxidation as the major reactions involved in its biotransformation.

Conclusions

There is a wide scope to be explored on the effects of 3,4-DMMC. Clinicians and pathologists should be encouraged to report their findings in scientific literature, as this will aid in evaluating potential detrimental effects of the drug in further clinical and forensic investigations. Further studies on pharmacokinetic properties of 3,4-DMMC are also necessary to improve the methods of drug detection.
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Metadaten
Titel
Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicity of the new psychoactive substance 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC)
verfasst von
Daniela Rouxinol
Helena Carmo
Félix Carvalho
Maria de Lourdes Bastos
Diana Dias da Silva
Publikationsdatum
06.08.2019
Verlag
Springer Singapore
Erschienen in
Forensic Toxicology / Ausgabe 1/2020
Print ISSN: 1860-8965
Elektronische ISSN: 1860-8973
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11419-019-00494-x

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