Inflammatory infiltration has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in the development of several types of CVDs, including myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia–reperfusion damage, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension. Inhibiting the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome can inhibit the progress of CVDs. However, there is no NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor in clinic, and it is very important to find a safe and effective NLRP3 inhibitor. Phenols and terpenoids are naturally natural products that have many anti-inflammatory effects in CVDs by modulating the NLRP3 inflammatory pathway. Thus, 20 natural products from phenols and terpenoids for the treatment of cardiovascular disease based on the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome were summarized and screened. Docking results showed salvianolic acid B and ellagic acid in phenols, and oridonin and triptolide in terpenoids had a better binding activity with NLRP3, which can provide theoretical support for finding novel NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors or lead compounds in the future.