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01.12.2014 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2014 Open Access

Italian Journal of Pediatrics 1/2014

Plant sterols–enriched diet decreases small, dense LDL-cholesterol levels in children with hypercholesterolemia: a prospective study

Zeitschrift:
Italian Journal of Pediatrics > Ausgabe 1/2014
Autoren:
Anastasia Garoufi, Styliani Vorre, Alexandra Soldatou, Charalampos Tsentidis, Lydia Kossiva, Antonios Drakatos, Antonios Marmarinos, Dimitrios Gourgiotis
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1824-7288-40-42) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

AG and SV contributed to the design of the study, the enrolment of the participants and the interpretation of data. DG, AM and AD designed and performed the laboratory measurements. AG and CT conducted the statistical analysis. AG, SV, AS and LK participated in the writing of this manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Background

Small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) molecules are more atherogenic compared with large buoyant ones. Phytosterols-enriched diets are effective in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations in hyperlipidemic children without significant adverse effects. Limited data on the impact of such a diet on sdLDL-C levels is available in adults while there are no reports concerning children. The purpose of this study is to prospectively evaluate the effect of the daily consumption of 2 g of plant sterols on sdLDL-C levels in children with hypercholesterolemia.

Methods

Fifty-nine children, 25 with LDL-C ≥ 3.4 mmol/l (130 mg/dl) and 34 with LDL-C < 3.4 mmol/l, aged 4.5-15.9 years, were included in the study. A yogurt-drink enriched with 2 g of plant sterols was added to the daily diet of hypercholesterolemic children and 6–12 months later lipid profiles were reassessed. Direct quantitative methods were used to measure LDL-C and sdLDL-C levels.

Results

The consumption of plant sterols reduced sdLDL-C significantly (p < 0.001), but levels remained higher compared with controls (p < 0.001). TC, LDL-C, non high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (NonHDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels also decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The median reduction of sdLDL-C and LDL-C was 16.6% and 13%, respectively. These variables decreased >10% in sixteen children (64%), independently from baseline levels, sex, age and body mass index (BMI). High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], and triglycerides (TGs) levels remained unaffected.

Conclusions

Plant sterols decrease sdLDL-C significantly and may be beneficial for children with hypercholesterolemia.
Zusatzmaterial
Authors’ original file for figure 1
13052_2014_366_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Literatur
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