The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1824-7288-40-42) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
AG and SV contributed to the design of the study, the enrolment of the participants and the interpretation of data. DG, AM and AD designed and performed the laboratory measurements. AG and CT conducted the statistical analysis. AG, SV, AS and LK participated in the writing of this manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) molecules are more atherogenic compared with large buoyant ones. Phytosterols-enriched diets are effective in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations in hyperlipidemic children without significant adverse effects. Limited data on the impact of such a diet on sdLDL-C levels is available in adults while there are no reports concerning children. The purpose of this study is to prospectively evaluate the effect of the daily consumption of 2 g of plant sterols on sdLDL-C levels in children with hypercholesterolemia.
Fifty-nine children, 25 with LDL-C ≥ 3.4 mmol/l (130 mg/dl) and 34 with LDL-C < 3.4 mmol/l, aged 4.5-15.9 years, were included in the study. A yogurt-drink enriched with 2 g of plant sterols was added to the daily diet of hypercholesterolemic children and 6–12 months later lipid profiles were reassessed. Direct quantitative methods were used to measure LDL-C and sdLDL-C levels.
The consumption of plant sterols reduced sdLDL-C significantly (p < 0.001), but levels remained higher compared with controls (p < 0.001). TC, LDL-C, non high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (NonHDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels also decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The median reduction of sdLDL-C and LDL-C was 16.6% and 13%, respectively. These variables decreased >10% in sixteen children (64%), independently from baseline levels, sex, age and body mass index (BMI). High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], and triglycerides (TGs) levels remained unaffected.
Plant sterols decrease sdLDL-C significantly and may be beneficial for children with hypercholesterolemia.
Authors’ original file for figure 113052_2014_366_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Krauss RM, Burke DJ: Identification of multiple subclasses of plasma low density lipoproteins in normal humans. J Lipid Res. 1982, 23: 97-104. PubMed
Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Expert panel on integrated guidelines for cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children and adolescents: summary report. Pediatrics. 2011, 128 (Suppl 5): 213-256.
Hogue JC, Lamarche B, Gaudet D, Lariviere M, Tremblay AJ, Bergeron J, Lemieux I, Despres JP, Gagne C, Couture P: Relationship between cholesteryl ester transfer protein and LDL heterogeneity in familial hypercholesterolemia. J Lipid Res. 2004, 45: 1077-1083. 10.1194/jlr.M300420-JLR200. CrossRefPubMed
Ayyobi AF, McGladdery SH, McNeely MJ, Austin MA, Motulsky AG, Brunzell JD: Small, dense LDL and elevated apolipoprotein B are the common characteristics for the three major lipid phenotypes of familial combined hyperlipidemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003, 23: 1289-1294. 10.1161/01.ATV.0000077220.44620.9B. CrossRefPubMed
Stan S, Levy E, Delvin EE, Hanley JA, Lamarche B, O’Loughlin J, Paradis G, Lambert M: Distribution of LDL particle size in a population-based sample of children and adolescents and relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors. Clin Chem. 2005, 51: 1192-1200. 10.1373/clinchem.2004.046771. CrossRefPubMed
Alabakovska SB, Labudovic DD, Tosheska KN, Spiroski MZ, Todorova BB: Low density lipoprotein subclass distribution in children with diabetes mellitus. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2008, 109: 155-159. PubMed
Lamarche B, Desroches S, Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner D, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Parker TL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW: Combined effects of a dietary portfolio of plant sterols, vegetable protein, viscous fibre and almonds on LDL particle size. Br J Nutr. 2004, 92: 657-663. 10.1079/BJN20041241. CrossRefPubMed
Gigleux I, Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Wong JM, de Souza R, Emam A, Parker TL, Trautwein EA, Lapsley KG, Connelly PW, Lamarche B: Comparison of a dietary portfolio diet of cholesterol-lowering foods and a statin on LDL particle size phenotype in hypercholesterolaemic participants. Br J Nutr. 2007, 98: 1229-1236. CrossRefPubMed
Sialvera TE, Pounis GD, Koutelidakis AE, Richter DJ, Yfanti G, Kapsokefalou M, Goumas G, Chiotinis N, Diamantopoulos E, Zampelas A: Phytosterols supplementation decreases plasma small and dense LDL levels in metabolic syndrome patients on a westernized type diet. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012, 22: 843-848. 10.1016/j.numecd.2010.12.004. CrossRefPubMed
Amundsen AL, Ose L, Nenseter MS, Ntanios FY: Plant sterol ester-enriched spread lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol in children with familial hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002, 76: 338-344. PubMed
- Plant sterols–enriched diet decreases small, dense LDL-cholesterol levels in children with hypercholesterolemia: a prospective study
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Pädiatrie
Meistgelesene Bücher aus dem Fachgebiet
Mail Icon II