The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-387) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
WP performed the study and drafted the manuscript. DK participated in the design of the study and drafted the manuscript. CU and YY discussed and commented on the manuscript. UL conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, plays a vital role in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway in malaria parasites. Two genes have been identified in Plasmodium spp. encoding a cytosolic SHMT (cSHMT) and putative mitochondria SHMT (mSHMT), but their roles have not been fully investigated.
The presence of Plasmodium SHMT isoforms in the intra-erythrocytic stage was assessed based on their gene expression using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Localization studies of Plasmodium SHMT isoforms were performed by transfection of fluorescent-tagged gene constructs into P. falciparum and expressions of fluorescent fusion proteins in parasites were observed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Genetic targeting through homologous recombination was used to study the essentiality of SHMT in Plasmodium spp.
Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed the expression of these two genes throughout intra-erythrocytic development. Localization studies using P. falciparum expressing fluorescent-tagged SHMT showed that Pf cSHMT-red fluorescent fusion protein (Pf cSHMT-DsRed) is localized in the cytoplasm, while Pf mSHMT-green fluorescent fusion protein (Pf mSHMT-GFP) co-localized with Mitotracker™-labelled mitochondria as predicted. The essentiality of plasmodial cSHMT was inferred from transfection experiments where recovery of viable knock-out parasites was not achieved, unless complemented with a functional equivalent copy of shmt.
Distinct compartment localizations of Pf SHMT were observed between cytoplasmic and mitochondrial isoforms, and evidence was provided for the indispensable role of plasmodial cSHMT indicating it as a valid target for development of novel anti-malarials.
Additional file 1: Primers used in the study.(XLS 32 KB)12936_2012_2547_MOESM1_ESM.xls
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- Plasmodium serine hydroxymethyltransferase: indispensability and display of distinct localization
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