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01.12.2012 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Malaria Journal 1/2012

Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections in the Republic of Djibouti: evaluation of their prevalence and potential determinants

Zeitschrift:
Malaria Journal > Ausgabe 1/2012
Autoren:
Bouh Abdi Khaireh, Sébastien Briolant, Aurélie Pascual, Madjid Mokrane, Vanessa Machault, Christelle Travaillé, Mohamed Abdi Khaireh, Ismail Hassan Farah, Habib Moussa Ali, Abdul-Ilah Ahmed Abdi, Souleiman Nour Ayeh, Houssein Youssouf Darar, Lénaïck Ollivier, Mohamed Killeh Waiss, Hervé Bogreau, Christophe Rogier, Bruno Pradines
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1475-2875-11-395) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Bouh Abdi Khaireh, Sébastien Briolant contributed equally to this work.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

BAK, SB, HB, CR and BP conceived and designed the experiments. BAK, LO, MAK, IHF, HMA, AAA, MKW, SNA, HYD and CR collected the data. HB, AP, BAK, SB, VM and CT contributed to reagents/materials/analysis tools. SB, BAK, HB, MAK, VM and CR analysed the data. BAK, SB, AP, VM, CR and BP wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Background

Formerly known as a hypoendemic malaria country, the Republic of Djibouti declared the goal of pre-eliminating malaria in 2006. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections in the Djiboutian population by using serological tools and to identify potential determinants of the disease and hotspots of malaria transmission within the country.

Methods

The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax within the districts of the capital city and the rest of the Republic of Djibouti were assessed using 13 and 2 serological markers, respectively. The relationship between the immune humeral response to P. falciparum and P. vivax and variables such as age, gender, wealth status, urbanism, educational level, distance to rivers/lakes, living area, having fever in the last month, and staying in a malaria-endemic country more than one year was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 1910 Djiboutians. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models of the immune humeral response were obtained for P. falciparum and P. vivax.

Results

The P. falciparum and P. vivax seroprevalence rates were 31.5%, CI95% [29.4-33.7] and 17.5%, CI95% [15.8-19.3], respectively. Protective effects against P. falciparum and P. vivax were female gender, educational level, and never having visited a malaria-endemic area for more than one year. For P. falciparum only, a protective effect was observed for not having a fever in the last month, living more than 1.5 km away from lakes and rivers, and younger ages.

Conclusions

This is the first study that assessed the seroprevalence of P. vivax in the Republic of Djibouti. It is necessary to improve knowledge of this pathogen in order to create an effective elimination programme. As supported by recent observations on the subject, the Republic of Djibouti has probably demonstrated a real decrease in the transmission of P. falciparum in the past seven years, which should encourage authorities to improve efforts toward elimination.
Zusatzmaterial
Additional file 1: Bivariate logistic regression analysis of P. falciparum infection’s seroprevalence for socio-economic variables. (DOC 71 KB)
12936_2012_2576_MOESM1_ESM.doc
Additional file 2: Bivariate logistic regression analysis of P. falciparum infection’s seroprevalence for environmental, health and bed net use variables. (DOC 86 KB)
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Additional file 3: Bivariate logistic regression analysis of P. vivax infection’s seroprevalence for socio-economic variables. (DOC 70 KB)
12936_2012_2576_MOESM3_ESM.doc
Additional file 4: Bivariate logistic regression analysis of P. vivax infection’s seroprevalence for environmental, health and bed net use variables. (DOC 82 KB)
12936_2012_2576_MOESM4_ESM.doc
Additional file 5: Bivariate logistic regression analysis of P. falciparum and P. vivax mixed infection’s seroprevalence for socio-economic variables. (DOC 72 KB)
12936_2012_2576_MOESM5_ESM.doc
Additional file 6: Bivariate logistic regression analysis of P. falciparum and P. vivax mixed infection’s seroprevalence for environmental, health and bed net use variables. (DOC 82 KB)
12936_2012_2576_MOESM6_ESM.doc
Additional file 7: Bivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis of the serological response to P. falciparum antigens. (DOC 190 KB)
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Additional file 8: Bivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis of the serological response to P. vivax antigens. (DOC 201 KB)
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Additional file 9: P. falciparum, P. vivax seroprevalences and geographical localization of the Djiboutian clusters. (DOC 132 KB)
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Additional file 10: Map of clusters of P. falciparum and P. vivax seroprevalence in the capital of the Republic of Djibouti. (TIFF 143 KB)
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Additional file 11: Map of clusters of P. falciparum and P. vivax seroprevalence in the Republic of Djibouti. (TIFF 128 KB)
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Authors’ original file for figure 1
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Authors’ original file for figure 2
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Authors’ original file for figure 3
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Authors’ original file for figure 4
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Authors’ original file for figure 5
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Authors’ original file for figure 6
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Authors’ original file for figure 7
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