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26.10.2017 | Original Research Article | Ausgabe 8/2018 Open Access

Clinical Pharmacokinetics 8/2018

Population Pharmacokinetics of Upadacitinib in Healthy Subjects and Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Analyses of Phase I and II Clinical Trials

Zeitschrift:
Clinical Pharmacokinetics > Ausgabe 8/2018
Autoren:
Ben Klünder, Mohamed-Eslam F. Mohamed, Ahmed A. Othman
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s40262-017-0605-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Upadacitinib is a janus kinase (JAK) 1 inhibitor being developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory diseases. This work characterized upadacitinib population pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects and RA patients and the effects of covariates on upadacitinib exposure.

Methods

Upadacitinib plasma concentrations (n = 6399) from 107 healthy subjects and 466 RA patients from three phase I and two 12-week RA phase IIb trials (1–48 mg immediate-release doses across studies) were analyzed using non-linear mixed-effects modeling. The models were qualified using bootstrap and stochastic simulations.

Results

A two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination described upadacitinib pharmacokinetics. Estimates (95% bootstrap confidence interval) for upadacitinib oral clearance, steady-state volume of distribution, absorption lag time, and mean absorption time were 39.7 (37.8–41.5) L/h, 210 (196–231) L, 0.48 (0.47–0.49) h, and 0.08 (0.04–0.12) h, respectively, for a typical healthy male. Matching on other covariates, a 16 and 32% higher upadacitinib area under the concentration–time curve (AUC) was estimated for females relative to males, and for subjects with RA relative to healthy volunteers, respectively. Subjects with RA with mild or moderate renal impairment were estimated to have 16 and 32% higher upadacitinib AUC, respectively, compared with subjects with RA with normal renal function. Upadacitinib clearance was not correlated with body weight.

Conclusions

Upadacitinib pharmacokinetics follow dose-proportional, bi-exponential disposition. A slightly lower upadacitinib clearance is estimated in subjects with RA than in healthy volunteers, consistent with observations for other JAK inhibitors. Other covariates (weight, sex, mild or moderate renal impairment) are not associated with clinically relevant effects on upadacitinib exposure.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov (https://​clinicaltrials.​gov/​) identifiers: NCT01741493, NCT02066389, and NCT01960855.

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