Dosing in obese critically ill patients is challenging due to pathophysiological changes derived from obesity and/or critical illness, and it remains fully unexplored. This study estimated the micafungin probability of reaching adequate 24-h area under the curve (AUC0–24h)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against Candida spp. for an obese/nonobese, critically ill/noncritically ill, large population.
Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analyses were collected from 10 critically ill nonobese patients, 10 noncritically ill obese patients, and 11 critically ill morbidly obese patients under empirical/directed micafungin treatment. Patients received once daily 100–150 mg micafungin at the discretion of the treating physician following the prescribing information and hospital guidelines. Total micafungin concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Monte-Carlo simulations were performed and the probability of target attainment (PTA) was calculated using the AUC0–24/MIC cut-offs 285 (C. parapsilosis), 3000 (all Candida spp.), and 5000 (nonparapsilosis Candida spp.). Intravenous once-daily 100-mg, 150-mg, and 200-mg doses were simulated at different body weights (45, 80, 115, 150, and 185 kg) and age (30, 50, 70 and 90 years old). PTAs ≥ 90% were considered optimal. Fractional target attainment (FTA) was calculated using published MIC distributions. A dosing regimen was considered successful if the FTA was ≥ 90%.
Overall, 100 mg of micafungin was once-daily administered for nonobese and obese patients with body mass index (BMI) ≤ 45 kg/m2 and 150 mg for morbidly obese patients with BMI > 45 kg/m2 (except two noncritically ill obese patients with BMI ~ 35 kg/m2 receiving 150 mg, and one critically ill patient with BMI > 45 kg/m2 receiving 100 mg). Micafungin concentrations in plasma were best described using a two-compartment model. Weight and age (but not severity score) were significant covariates and improved the model. FTAs > 90% were obtained against C. albicans with the 200 mg/24 h dose for all body weights (up to 185 kg), and with the 150 mg/24 h for body weights < 115 kg, and against C. glabrata with the 200 mg/24 h dose for body weights < 115 kg.
The lack of adequacy for the 100 mg/24 h dose suggested the need to increase the dose to 150 mg/24 h for C. albicans infections. Further pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies should address optimization of micafungin dosing for nonalbicans Candida infections.