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02.11.2017 | Reports of Original Investigations | Ausgabe 1/2018

Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie 1/2018

Pre- and postoperative anemia, acute kidney injury, and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: a retrospective observational study

Zeitschrift:
Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
MD Adriana D. Oprea, MD J. Mauricio Del Rio, MSc Mary Cooter, PhD Cynthia L. Green, MD Jörn A. Karhausen, MD Patrick Nailer, MD Nicole R. Guinn, MD Mihai V. Podgoreanu, MD Mark Stafford-Smith, MD Jacob N. Schroder, MD Manuel L. Fontes, MD, PhD Miklos D. Kertai
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s12630-017-0991-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Accepted and presented as an oral presentation of 2016 Best Abstracts in Clinical Science at the American Society of Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, USA, October 22, 2016.
The first two and last two authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered co-first and co-senior authors.

Abstract

Background

Preoperative and postoperative anemia have been identified individually as potential risk factors for postoperative complications after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Their interrelationship with acute kidney injury (AKI) and long-term mortality, however, has not been clearly defined and was the purpose of this study.

Methods

We retrospectively evaluated 6,130 adult patients undergoing CABG surgery performed at a single large academic medical center. Preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin concentrations were used as continuous predictors of postoperative AKI and mortality. Additionally, sex-specific preoperative (< 13 g·dL−1 in men and < 12 g·dL−1 in women) and postoperative anemia (the median of the lowest in-hospital values) were used as categorical predictors. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Clinical Practice Guidelines, when serum creatinine rose ≥ 50% during the period between day of surgery and postoperative day ten, or when a 0.3 mg·dL−1 (26.5 μmol·L−1) increase was detected in a rolling 48-hr window from the day of surgery to the tenth postoperative day. The association of preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin levels and anemia patterns with postoperative AKI and mortality were assessed via univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses with time-varying effects for postoperative serum hemoglobin concentrations.

Results

The median preoperative and median minimum postoperative serum hemoglobin concentrations were 13.1 g·dL−1 and 8.8 g·dL−1, respectively. The incidence of AKI was 58%. Overall, 1,880 (30.7%) patients died an average of 6.8 yr after surgery. After adjusting for differences in baseline and clinical characteristics, on any given day, patients with preoperative anemia (multivariable hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13 to 1.33; P < 0.001) and those with a combination of preoperative and postoperative anemia (multivariable HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.40; P < 0.0008) were at an elevated risk for developing postoperative AKI and mortality (preoperative anemia: multivariable HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.44; P < 0.001; preoperative and postoperative anemia: multivariable HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.79; P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that preoperative anemia alone and preoperative anemia combined with postoperative anemia are associated with AKI and mortality after CABG surgery.

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