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07.02.2018 | Original Scientific Report | Ausgabe 8/2018

World Journal of Surgery 8/2018

Predicting Conversion from Laparoscopic to Open Cholecystectomy: A Single Institution Retrospective Study

World Journal of Surgery > Ausgabe 8/2018
Samer Al Masri, Yaser Shaib, Mostapha Edelbi, Hani Tamim, Faek Jamali, Nicholas Batley, Walid Faraj, Ali Hallal



Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the standard surgical treatment for benign gallbladder disease. Nevertheless, conversion to open cholecystectomy (OC) is needed in some cases. The aim of this study is to calculate our institutional conversion rate and to identify the variables that are implicated in increasing the risk of conversion (LC–OC).

Materials and methods

We carried out a retrospective study of all cases of LC performed at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between 2000 and 2015. Each (LC–OC) case was randomly matched to a laparoscopically completed case by the same consultant within the same year of practice, as the LC–OC case, in a 1:5 ratio. Forty-eight parameters were compared between the two study groups.


Forty-eight out of 4668 LC were converted to OC over the 15-year study period; the conversion rate in our study was 1.03%. The variables that were found to be most predictive of conversion were male gender, advanced age, prior history of laparotomy, especially in the setting of prior gunshot wound, a history of restrictive or constrictive lung disease and anemia (Hb < 9 g/dl). The most common intraoperative reasons for conversion were perceived difficult anatomy or obscured view secondary to severe adhesions or significant inflammation. Patients who were in the LC–OC arm had a longer length of hospital stay.


Advance age, male gender, significant comorbidities and history of prior laparotomies have a high risk of conversion. Patients with these risk factors should be counseled for the possibility of conversion to open surgery preoperatively. Further research is needed to determine whether these high risks patients should be operated on by surgeons with more extensive experience in minimal invasive surgery.

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