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04.05.2018 | Original Article

Predicting relationship of eating behavior, physical activity and smoking with type II diabetes and related comorbidities among Saudi citizens: cross-sectional observational study

International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries
Syed Wasif Gillani, Mohi Iqal Mohammad Abdul, Irfan Altaf Ansari, Hisham A. Zaghloul, Syed Ata-ur-Rehman, Mirza R. Baig


The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation pattern of social habits and cardiovascular risk assessment with disease history (e.g., obesity, T2DM and HPT) among free-living citizens of Saudi Arabia. Cross-sectional observational study design was used to collect the data among the citizens of Saudi Arabia. Convenient sampling technique was used to contact over 1163 free-living individuals. A self-administered questionnaire containing 49 items divided into following three sections was used to measure the correlation. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict the response. Sixty-seven percent (n = 725) of the respondents (male n = 419 (57.79%) vs. female n = 306 (42.21%), respectively; p > 0.01) perceived unhealthy nutritional habits. Also, a total of 785 (72.55%) participants (436 (55.54%) vs 349 (44.56%); males vs. females; p > 0.05) responded insufficient daily physical activity. Leisure time and uncontrolled eating were independently associated with BMI (S.E − 0.13, 95% CI − 1.81 to − 0.11, p = 0.035; and S.E 0.31, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.45, p < 0.001, respectively). T2DM showed significant independent association with leisure time, uncontrolled eating, and the Framingham risk (S.E − 0.25, 95% CI − 1.27 to − 0.14, p = 0.022; S.E 0.49, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.97, p < 0.001, and S.E − 0.17, 95% CI − 0.87 to − 0.13, p < 0.001, respectively). Study concluded a strong inverse correlation pattern between the level of physical activity (leisure time) with BMI, T2DM, obesity, and HPT. Uncontrolled eating behavior showed significant effect on BMI, obesity, and T2DM. However, HPT was significantly associated with work time (PA) and the Framingham risk assessment score.

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