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Hyperglycaemia is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease and a high risk state for progression to type 2 diabetes. Moreover, overweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2, increases the risk of diabetes. Information about the feasibility of measuring, during routine occupational health examinations, predictors of elevated capillary blood glucose in overweight individuals is scarce. This study aims to identify factors that are associated with elevated capillary blood glucose and can be routinely measured in French overweight employees to develop targeted preventive strategies in the workplace.
Cross-sectional study based on data collected during a workplace health promotion programme of the French National Railways Company (SNCF) from January 2011 to March 2015. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by overweight volunteers during the routine occupational health examination. Data collected included health, anthropometric, sociodemographic, occupational, and lifestyle characteristics. Elevated capillary blood glucose was defined as capillary blood glucose equal to or higher than 7 mmol/L. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with elevated capillary blood glucose and results were described with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
The analysis concerned 2248 overweight employees (mean age: 43 years) with complete data (total population: 7724). The prevalence of elevated capillary blood glucose was 20.0%. In the multivariate analysis, significant predictors of elevated capillary blood glucose were: male sex (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.21–2.28), age ≥ 50 years (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.01–2.55), high blood pressure (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.07–1.69), and daily intake of sugary food (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.17–2.00). No association with occupational characteristics (work schedule, job seniority, professional grade, and job sector) was found possibly due to lack of statistical power.
Our findings provide information for setting up specific diabetes prevention strategies in the workplace. Overweight men, aged 50 and older, with high blood pressure and daily sugary food intake should be considered for capillary blood glucose measurements during their occupational medical surveillance. Hypertension screening and management as well as health policy measures to target sugary food consumption could be included in workplace prevention strategies.