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04.03.2019 | Original Article Open Access

Preliminary Study on Selected Markers of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Angiogenesis in Patients with Bladder Cancer

Pathology & Oncology Research
Ewa Sawicka, Ewa Maria Kratz, Beata Szymańska, Anna Guzik, Artur Wesołowski, Paweł Kowal, Lilla Pawlik-Sobecka, Agnieszka Piwowar
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In recent years, bladder cancer (BC) has been reported as one of the most commonly occurring cancers among older people, and its detection is still difficult. Therefore, there is a need to search for additional useful markers of disease. Some studies indicate the important roles of inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) in bladder tumour pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of selected markers of OS, inflammation and angiogenesis in blood plasma/serum samples derived from patients with BC, and a healthy control group. Moreover the degrees of change and strength of correlation between values of the analysed markers and tumour stage or grade were estimated. Concentrations of: malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and total antioxidant status (TAS) divided into slow (TAS-s) and fast (TAS-f) antioxidants (spectrophotometric measurement), angiogenin (ANG) (immunoenzymatic method) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (immunoturbidimetric method) were determined in both the studied groups. The majority of values of the examined parameters were significantly higher among patients, while subfractions of TAS were significantly lower in comparison to the control group. Moreover, different values and different strengths of correlation between the examined parameters and cancer stage or grade were noticed. The most significant changes for CRP were observed in T2 and for MDA in G3, while the lowest TAS-f activity was revealed in G1 patients. Increased values of OS parameters, angiogenesis and inflammation markers, in combination with reduced TAS subfractions activity in BC are important in its pathogenesis and will be helpful in estimation of patients’ condition.

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