Botswana is one of the four front line malaria elimination countries in Southern Africa, with malaria control activities that include routine vector control. Past and recent studies have shown that Anopheles arabiensis is the only known vector of Plasmodium parasites in the country. This report presents a preliminary evaluation on Anopheles species composition in seven districts of Botswana with some inferences on their vectorial role.
Overall, 404 Anopheles mosquito females were collected, of which 196 were larvae collected from several breeding sites, and 208 were adults obtained from indoor pyrethrum spray catches (PSC). Anopheles arabiensis (58.9%) accounted for the highest relative frequency in 5 out of 7 districts sampled. The other species collected, among those identified, were barely represented: Anopheles longipalpis type C (16.3%), Anopheles parensis (8.9%), Anopheles quadriannulatus (5.4%), and Anopheles leesoni (0.2%). PCR test for human β-globin on mosquitoes collected by PSC showed that An. arabiensis and An. parensis had bitten human hosts. Moreover, An. arabiensis showed a non-negligible Plasmodium falciparum infection rate in two sites (3.0% and 2.5% in Chobe and Kweneng West districts, respectively).
This work provides first time evidence of Anopheles diversity in several areas of Botswana. Anopheles arabiensis is confirmed to be widespread in all the sampled districts and to be vector of P. falciparum. Moreover, the presence of Anopheles funestus group in Botswana has been assessed. Further research, entomological surveillance activities and possibly vector control programmes need to be better developed and implemented as well as targeting outdoors resting vectors.
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- Preliminary survey on Anopheles species distribution in Botswana shows the presence of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus complexes
Charles W. Muthoga
Davis S. Ntebela
Isaac K. Quaye
Giacomo Maria Paganotti
- BioMed Central
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