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01.12.2017 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

Malaria Journal 1/2017

Preliminary survey on Anopheles species distribution in Botswana shows the presence of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus complexes

Zeitschrift:
Malaria Journal > Ausgabe 1/2017
Autoren:
Leabaneng Tawe, Pleasure Ramatlho, Kelebogile Waniwa, Charles W. Muthoga, Ntebaleng Makate, Davis S. Ntebela, Isaac K. Quaye, Marco Pombi, Giacomo Maria Paganotti

Abstract

Background

Botswana is one of the four front line malaria elimination countries in Southern Africa, with malaria control activities that include routine vector control. Past and recent studies have shown that Anopheles arabiensis is the only known vector of Plasmodium parasites in the country. This report presents a preliminary evaluation on Anopheles species composition in seven districts of Botswana with some inferences on their vectorial role.

Results

Overall, 404 Anopheles mosquito females were collected, of which 196 were larvae collected from several breeding sites, and 208 were adults obtained from indoor pyrethrum spray catches (PSC). Anopheles arabiensis (58.9%) accounted for the highest relative frequency in 5 out of 7 districts sampled. The other species collected, among those identified, were barely represented: Anopheles longipalpis type C (16.3%), Anopheles parensis (8.9%), Anopheles quadriannulatus (5.4%), and Anopheles leesoni (0.2%). PCR test for human β-globin on mosquitoes collected by PSC showed that An. arabiensis and An. parensis had bitten human hosts. Moreover, An. arabiensis showed a non-negligible Plasmodium falciparum infection rate in two sites (3.0% and 2.5% in Chobe and Kweneng West districts, respectively).

Conclusions

This work provides first time evidence of Anopheles diversity in several areas of Botswana. Anopheles arabiensis is confirmed to be widespread in all the sampled districts and to be vector of P. falciparum. Moreover, the presence of Anopheles funestus group in Botswana has been assessed. Further research, entomological surveillance activities and possibly vector control programmes need to be better developed and implemented as well as targeting outdoors resting vectors.
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