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05.02.2019 | META-ANALYSIS | Ausgabe 3/2019

European Journal of Epidemiology 3/2019

Premenopausal cardiovascular disease and age at natural menopause: a pooled analysis of over 170,000 women

Zeitschrift:
European Journal of Epidemiology > Ausgabe 3/2019
Autoren:
Dongshan Zhu, Hsin-Fang Chung, Nirmala Pandeya, Annette J. Dobson, Rebecca Hardy, Diana Kuh, Eric J. Brunner, Fiona Bruinsma, Graham G. Giles, Panayotes Demakakos, Jung Su Lee, Hideki Mizunuma, Kunihiko Hayashi, Hans-Olov Adami, Elisabete Weiderpass, Gita D. Mishra
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Abstract

Early menopause is associated with an increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Few studies have investigated the converse. We examined whether premenopausal CVD events are associated with early age at menopause. We pooled the individual data of 177,131 women from nine studies. We used multinomial logistic regression models to estimate multivariable relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between age at onset of premenopausal CVD events—including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke—and age at natural menopause. Altogether 1561 (0.9%) premenopausal participants reported CVD events (including 1130 CHD and 469 stroke) at a mean age of 41.3 years. Compared with women without any premenopausal CVD events, women who experienced a first CVD event before age 35 years had a twofold risk of menopause before age 45 years (early menopause); adjusted RRR (95% CI) of 1.92 (1.17, 3.14) for any CVD, 1.86 (1.01, 3.43) for CHD and 2.17 (1.43, 3.30) for stroke. Women who experienced a first premenopausal CVD event after age 40 years underwent a natural menopause at the expected age (around 51 years). These associations were robust to adjustment for smoking status, BMI, educational level, race/ethnicity, age at menarche, parity, hypertension and family history of CVD. For premenopausal women, a first CVD event before age 35 years is associated with a doubling of the risk of an early menopause, while a first CVD event occurred after 35 years indicates a normal menopause at around 51 years. Shared genetic and environmental factors (such as smoking), as well as compromised vasculature following CVD events, may contribute to this outcome.

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