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11.03.2021 | Observational Research | Ausgabe 5/2021

Rheumatology International 5/2021

Prevalence of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy with long-term use in a cohort of Indian patients with rheumatic diseases

Zeitschrift:
Rheumatology International > Ausgabe 5/2021
Autoren:
Manesh Manoj, Rasmi Ranjan Sahoo, Ankita Singh, Kasturi Hazarika, Prashant Bafna, Apjit Kaur, Anupam Wakhlu
Wichtige Hinweise

Supplementary Information

The online version contains supplementary material available at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00296-021-04831-5.

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Abstract

The study aims to estimate the prevalence of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy in a cohort of Indian patients and analyse the associated factors. Adult patients with rheumatological disorders aged ≥ 18 years using HCQ for more than 5 years and/or having received a cumulative dose > 400 g were included. Demographic and clinical data were collected and all underwent ophthalmological tests which included Humphrey automated visual fields (AVF) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The various clinical characteristics of the patients were compared. The study included 110 patients with a mean age of 43.5 ± 10.1 years and predominantly females. Eleven patients (10%) were diagnosed with definite HCQ retinopathy. The mean daily dose of HCQ (mg/kg of real body weight) was significantly different in the groups with and without retinopathy (5.7 ± 0.9 vs 5.1 ± 0.8, p = 0.04). Patients with retinopathy had significantly more colour vision abnormalities (odds of 16.9; confidence interval 4.1–69.1, p = 0.0001) and higher prevalence of both parafoveal and perifoveal thinning (p < 0.0001). Age, gender, duration of HCQ use, cumulative HCQ dose and body mass index were not found to be associated with retinopathy. Four out of 11 patients had abnormalities only on 30–2 protocol for AVF testing, two had abnormalities only on 10–2 protocol, whereas five patients had abnormalities on both protocols. SD-OCT abnormalities were present in all patients with retinopathy. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy was prevalent in the study cohort and significantly associated with a higher daily dose of HCQ (mg/kg real body weight).

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