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01.12.2014 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2014 Open Access

Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 1/2014

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus - infected patients from the South-West region of Cameroon, using the adult treatment panel III criteria

Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome > Ausgabe 1/2014
Herbert Afegenwi Mbunkah, Henry Dilonga Meriki, Anthony Tufon Kukwah, Omarine Nfor, Theresa Nkuo-Akenji
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1758-5996-6-92) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

N-AT conceived, designed and supervised the study, reviewed and edited the manuscript. MHA designed the study, researched data, contributed to the discussion and wrote the manuscript. MHD conceived and designed the study, researched data, contributed to the discussion and reviewed the manuscript. KAT and NO researched data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



Several studies have reported that the metabolic syndrome (MS) is more common in subjects with HIV infection than in HIV-negative individuals. HIV infection and the use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) have been shown to predispose HIV-infected persons to MS. In this study, we report the prevalence of MS in Cameroonian HIV-infected subjects receiving different combinations of HAART as well as HIV patients who have never received antiretroviral drugs.


In this cross-sectional study, 173 treated and untreated HIV-infected out-patients (aged 18–70 years) managed at the Buea and Limbe Regional Hospitals and 50 seronegative individuals (controls) were recruited after obtaining their consent. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the National Ethics Committee of Cameroon. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was examined using the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) criteria. Data was analyzed using SPSS® (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) version 16. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results and discussion

The prevalence of MS among the HIV patients was 15.6% (27/173) and 8% (4/50) among the controls and the difference was significant (p = 0.022). MS was more prevalent in HIV-infected patients on HAART than in ART-naive patients and seronegative individuals. Overall, the prevalence of MS was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in females (28/153; 18.3%) than in males (3/70; 4.3%). The patients on first-line drugs demonstrated the highest MS prevalence (15/62; 24.2%) followed by the ART-naïve group of patients (7/61; 11.5%) and the lowest prevalence was among the patients on protease inhibitors (5/50; 10%). Patients on the drug combination Lamivudine/Stavudine/Nevirapine had the highest prevalence of MS (50%).


In this study, HAART but not HIV disease plays a significant role in the development of MS. The metabolic complications as a result of treatment with HAART may predispose HIV patients to developing cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in spite of improvements in morbidity and mortality conferred by immune reconstitution as a result of HAART treatment.
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