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01.12.2012 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Malaria Journal 1/2012

Prevalence of molecular markers of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance in Dakar, Senegal

Zeitschrift:
Malaria Journal > Ausgabe 1/2012
Autoren:
Nathalie Wurtz, Bécaye Fall, Aurélie Pascual, Silmane Diawara, Kowry Sow, Eric Baret, Bakary Diatta, Khadidiatou B Fall, Pape S Mbaye, Fatou Fall, Yaya Diémé, Christophe Rogier, Raymond Bercion, Sébastien Briolant, Boubacar Wade, Bruno Pradines
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

NW, AP, EB and SB carried out the molecular genetic studies. BF, SD, SD, TD, BD, KBF, PSM and FF carried out diagnostic tests, monitored the patients, collected clinical and epidemiological data and drafted the manuscript. CR, RB, BW and BP conceived and coordinated the study. SB, CR and BP analysed the data. NW, AP, SB and BP drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Background

As a result of the widespread resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) (including artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine) has been recommended as a first-line anti-malarial regimen in Senegal since 2006. Intermittent preventive treatments with anti-malarial drugs based on sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine are also given to children or pregnant women once per month during the transmission season. Since 2006, there have been very few reports on the susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs. To estimate the prevalence of resistance to several anti-malarial drugs since the introduction of the widespread use of ACT, the presence of molecular markers associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine was assessed in local isolates at the military hospital of Dakar.

Methods

The prevalence of genetic polymorphisms in genes associated with anti-malarial drug resistance, i.e., Pfcrt, Pfdhfr, Pfdhps and Pfmdr1, and the copy number of Pfmdr1 were evaluated for a panel of 174 isolates collected from patients recruited at the military hospital of Dakar from 14 October 2009 to 19 January 2010.

Results

The Pfcrt 76T mutation was identified in 37.2% of the samples. The Pfmdr1 86Y and 184F mutations were found in 16.6% and 67.6% of the tested samples, respectively. Twenty-eight of the 29 isolates with the 86Y mutation were also mutated at codon 184. Only one isolate (0.6%) had two copies of Pfmdr1. The Pfdhfr 108N/T, 51I and 59R mutations were identified in 82.4%, 83.5% and 74.1% of the samples, respectively. The double mutant (108N and 51I) was detected in 83.5% of the isolates, and the triple mutant (108N, 51I and 59R) was detected in 75.3%. The Pfdhps 437G, 436F/A and 613S mutations were found in 40.2%, 35.1% and 1.8% of the samples, respectively. There was no double mutant (437G and 540E) or no quintuple mutant (Pfdhfr 108N, 51I and 59R and Pfdhps 437G and 540E). The prevalence of the quadruple mutant (Pfdhfr 108N, 51I and 59R and Pfdhps 437G) was 36.5%.

Conclusions

Since 2004, the prevalence of chloroquine resistance had decreased. The prevalence of isolates with high-level pyrimethamine resistance is 83.5%. The prevalence of isolates resistant to sulphadoxine is 40.2%. However, no quintuple mutant (Pfdhfr 108N, 51I and 59R and Pfdhps 437G and 540E), which is associated with a high level of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance, has been identified to date. The resistance to amodiaquine remains moderate.
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