Needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs) are critical occupational risk among health care workers (HCWs), which is extremely worrying due to the potential risk of transmitting bloodborn pathogens (BBPs). This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of NSIs among Iranian HCWs.
In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the key terms percu* injur*, needle* stick injur*, needlestick* injur*, or sharp* injur* were searched in the Scientific Information Database (SID), MagIran, IranMedex, Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and Scopus. A prefabricated checklist, including variables: first author, publication year, study population, sample size, gender, total prevalence of needlestick in each gender, type of questionnaire, region, and type of hospitals, was used to extract data from the selected articles included which were published between 2003 and 2016.
The analysis showed that the prevalence of NSIs in the Iranian HCWs was 42.5% (95% CI 37–48). Moreover, the prevalence of NSIs was more in women (47%; 95% CI 36–58) compared to men (42%; 95% CI 26–58).
Given the high prevalence of NSIs, it is necessary to supply safe needles and instruments, hold training programs focused on new methods of using sharp objects safely, observe safety principles and standards, reinforce the practical skills of personnel, and pay more attention to reporting and improving occupational behaviors like avoiding needle recapping in order to reduce the prevalence of NSIs and consequently reduce potential risk of transmission of BBPs.
Ghanei Gheshlagh R, Zahednezhad H, Shabani F, Hameh M, Ghahramani M, Farajzadeh M, et al. Needle sticks injuries and its related factors among nurses. Iran J Nurs. 2014;27:21–9. Available at: http://ijn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-1833-en.html CrossRef
Desalegn Z, Gebreselassie S, Asemamaw Y. Epidemiology of needle stick-sharp injuries (NSSIs) and potential high risk exposures among health professionals in Ethiopia: neglected public health concern. Am J Health Res. 2015;3:298–304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2016.02.558.
Baghcheghi N, Koohestani H, Abedi A. Prevalence needlestick/sharps injuries among nursing student and related factor. Iran Occup Health. 2011;7:31–9. Available at: http://ioh.iums.ac.ir/article-1-393-en.html
World health organization. The world health report 2002: reducing risks, promoting healthy life: World Health Organization; 2002. Available at: http://www.who.int/whr/2002/en/
Geravandi S, Alavi SM, Yari AR, Yousefi F, Hosseini SA, Kamaei S, et al. Epidemiological aspects of needle stick injuries among health care workers in Razi Hospital Ahvaz, Iran, in 2015. Arch Hyg Sci. 2016;5:85–91. Available at: http://jhygiene.muq.ac.ir/article-1-88-en.html
Bhardwaj A, Sivapathasundaram N, Yusof M, Minghat A, Swe K, Sinha N. The prevalence of accidental needle stick injury and their reporting among healthcare workers in orthopaedic wards in general hospital Melaka, Malaysia. Malaysian Orthop Journal. 2014;8:6–13. https://doi.org/10.5704/MOJ.1407.009. CrossRef
Khraisat FS, Juni MH, Salmiah M, Rahman AA, Hamdan-Mansour A. Needle stick injuries prevalence among nurses in Jordanian hospitals. International journal of public health and clinical. Sci. 2015;2:7–16. Available at: http://www.publichealthmy.org/ejournal/ojs2/index.php/ijphcs/article/view/196
Cho E, Lee H, Choi M, Park SH, Yoo IY, Aiken LH. Factors associated with needlestick and sharp injuries among hospital nurses: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013;50:1025–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.07.009. CrossRefPubMed
Irmak Z. Needlestick and sharps injury among nurses at a state hospital in Turkey. Aust J Adv Nurs. 2012;30:48–55. Available at: https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=089813477479400;res=IELAPA
Ghanei Gheshlagh R, Nazari M, Baghi V, Dalvand S, Dalvandi A, Sayehmiri K. Underreporting of needlestick injuries among healthcare providers in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hayat. 2017;23:201–13. Available at: http://hayat.tums.ac.ir/article-1-1941-en.html
Haghdoost AA, Moosazadeh M. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among students of Iranâ€™ s universities: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Res Med Sci. 2013;18:717–25. Available at: http://jrms.mui.ac.ir/index.php/jrms/article/view/9454 PubMedPubMedCentral
Moosazadeh M, Nekoei-moghadam M, Emrani Z, Amiresmaili M. Prevalence of unwanted pregnancy in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Health Plann Manag. 2014;29:e277–e90. CrossRef
Meline T. Selecting studies for systematic review: inclusion and exclusion criteria. Contemp Issues Commun Sci Disord. 2006;33:21–7. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a6b4/d6d01bd19a67e794db4b70207a45d47d82f3.pdf
Balouchi A, Shahdadi H, Ahmadidarrehsima S, Rafiemanesh H. The frequency, causes and prevention of Needlestick injuries in nurses of Kerman: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015;9:13–5. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2015/16729.6965. CrossRef
Hajivandi A, Ramavandi B, Rezaeeshiri A, Ahmadi B. A survey on the sharpand cutting wastes injury in nurses of the Bushehr city hospitals in the year 1392. J Urmia Nurs Midwifery Fac. 2015;13:490–7. Available at: http://eprints.umsu.ac.ir/id/eprint/4005
Jahangiri M, Rostamabadi A, Hoboubi N, Tadayon N, Soleimani A. Needle stick injuries and their related safety measures among nurses in a university hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Saf Health Work. 2016;7:72–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shaw.2015.07.006. CrossRefPubMed
Mirzaei-Alavijeh M, Jalilian F, Karami-Matin B, Ghaderi A, Mahboubi M, Janizadeh R, et al. Needle-stick and medication errors in emergency nurses are due to their job stresses? A descriptive study in Kermanshah Hospitals, Iran. J Biol Today's World. 2014;3:185–8. Available at: http://sdh.yums.ac.ir/uploads/Needle_-_Stick_and_Medication.pdf
Salmanzadeh S, Rahimi Z, Goshtasbipour M, Meripoor M. The prevalence of needle-stick injuries among healthcare workers in Dasht-e-Azadegan, southern west of Iran. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Allied. Sci. 2016;5:417–22. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f8d1/63fa0ce54d737548c61309b7131a3d74fe56.pdf?_ga=2.265225103.1640492555.1519337271-1425086663.1519337271
Shoghli A, Mousavi Nasab N, Ghorchian F, Masoumi H, Momtazi S. Study of the needle sticks injury (NSI) among the Zanjan Educational Hospitals staff. J Zanjan University Med Sci Health Serv. 2013;21:131–41. Available at: http://zums.ac.ir/journal/article-1-2148-en.html
Shadi R, Rabi Rad N, Tamizi Z, Fallahi Khoshkenab M, Mohamad Nezhad E. An investigation in to occupational hazard faced by nurses in pediatrics hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2006-2009. Int J Commun Based Nursing Midwifery. 2013;1:200–7. Available at: http://ijcbnm.sums.ac.ir/index.php/ijcbnm/article/view/61
Bijani B, Azimian J, Soleimany MA, Mohammadi N. Epidemiology and risk factors of needle stick injuries among nurses in Bou-Ali Sina teaching hospital, Qazvin. Adv Nurs Midwifery 2013;22:1–9.
Tirgar A, Gholami F. A survey on needlestick injuries and related occupational factors among the nurses. Mod Rehabil. 2012;1:31–8. Available at: http://jhsw.tums.ac.ir/article-1-21-en.html
Sharifian S, Aminian O, Afsharisaleh L. Occupational stress and its relationship with need lestick injury among emergency department personnel. Occup Med Q J (TKJ). 2012;3:7–13. Available at: http://tkj.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-84-en.html
Rezaei SRN, Tamizi ZS, Fallahi Khoshknab M, Mohammad Nejad E, Mahmoodi M. Needle sticks injuries among health care workers in emergency medical centers in Tehran University of Medical Sciences hospitals (2007-2010). J Health Promot Manag. 2012;1:46–55. Available at: http://jhpm.ir/article-1-81-en.html CrossRef
Nejadghaderi M, Safizadeh H, Khanjani N. The knowledge and practice of medical staff about needle injuries in Rafsanjan's Ali-ebne-Abitaleb hospital, Iran. J Health Dev. 2012;1:1–10. Available at: http://jhad.kmu.ac.ir/article-1-121-en.html.
Hashemi S, Torabian S, Mamani M, MOAZEN DS. The prevalence of needlestick and sharps injuries among health care workers in Hamadan, Iran. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci Health Ser. 2012;18:41–6. Available at: http://sjh.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-212-en.html.
Ghannad MS, Majzoobi MM, Ghavimi M, Mirzaei M. Needlestick and sharp object injuries among health care workers in Hamadan Province, Iran. J Emerg Nurs. 2012;38:171–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2011.01.009. CrossRefPubMed
Bijani B, Sotudehmanesh S, Mohammadi N. Epidemiological features of needle stick injuries among nursing staff. J Guilan Univ Med Sci. 2011;77:61–8. Available at: http://journal.gums.ac.ir/article-1-160-en.html
Mohammadi N, Allami A, Malek Mohamadi R. Percutaneous exposure incidents in nurses: knowledge, practice and exposure to hepatitis B infection. Hepat Mon. 2011;11:186–90. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22087141 PubMedPubMedCentral
Rahnavard F, Reza Masouleh S, Seyed Fazelpour F, Kazemnejad Leili E. Study factors related to report the needle stick and sharps injuries report by nursing staffs of the educational and therapeutic centers of Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht. Holis Nurs Midwifery J. 2011;21:30–7. Available at: http://hnmj.gums.ac.ir/article-1-191-en.html
Shiva F, Sanaei A, Shamshiri AR, Ghotbi F. Survey of needle-stick injuries in paediatric health personnel of 5 university hospitals in Tehran. J Pak Med Assoc. 2011;61:127–31. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21375158 PubMed
Nasiri E, Vahedi M, Siamian H, Mortazavi Y, Jafari H. Needle sticks injury with contaminated blood in the special unit. S Staff Middle-East J Sci Res. 2010;5:61–4. Available at: https://www.idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr5(2)/2.pdf
Gholami A, Salarilak S, Alinia T, Nejad Rahim R. Study of needle stick injuries among health Care Workers at Teaching Hospitals in Urmia. Iranian J Epidemiol. 2010;6:57–61. Available at: http://irje.tums.ac.ir/article-1-78-en.html
Heidari M, Shahbazi S. Prevalence of needle sticks exposure in operation room’s staff of Borujen & Lordegan hospitals-2010-2011. CommunHealth J. 2010;5:32–7. Available at: http://eprints.skums.ac.ir/id/eprint/6371
Khalouei A, Iranpour A, Hamzehnezhadi S, Rahmanian KE. Study on epidemiology of needle stick injury among nursing personnel of Kerman university hospital, Kerman, Iran in (2006-2007) journal of Jahrom University of Medical. Sci. 2010;7:42–9. Available at: http://www.sid.ir/En/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=169367.
Mohammadi Nejad E, Esfand Bod M, Ehsani SR, Deljoo R. Needlestick injuries and reporting among emergency nurses in Tehran University of Medical Science. Iranian Journal of Infectious Disease and Tropical. Medicine. 2010;48:49–54. Available at: http://www.sid.ir/En/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=274945
Moradi A, Mostafavi E, Moradi A. The prevalence and causes of needle stick injuries among the primary health care workers of Bahar city, Hamadan Province. Iran Occup Health. 2010;7:39–42. Available at: http://ioh.iums.ac.ir/article-1-289-en.html
NS AM, Hamidizade S, Jamali F, Pournoroz N. Survey of accidental injuries caused by sharp instruments among the Jahrom university of medical sciences hospitals health care workers, 2008. J Jahrom University Med Sci(JJUMS). 2009;7:30–8.
Kazemi Galougahi MH. Evaluation of needle stick injuries among nurses of Khanevadeh Hospital in Tehran. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2010;15:172. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3093184/
Ghasemi A, Eatemad E, Pour Mohammad Jan N, Bashiri J, Habibzadeh Sh. Pour Mohammad Jan N, Bashiri J, Habibzadeh Sh. . Effect of needle stick injuries associated factors on two group of nurses and service workers in hospitals of Ardabil. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Tropical. Med. 2009;14:27–32. Available at: http://www.iiccom.org/JOURNAL/PDF/46/6.PDF.
Mohammad Nejad E, Esfandbod M. Epidemiologic aspects of the nurse's occupational exposure to sharp objects. Iranian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Tropical. Med. 2009;45:47–50. Available at: http://www.iiccom.org/JOURNAL/PDF/45/9.PDF.
Jonaidi Jafari N, Shasti M, Izadi M, Ranjbar R, Ghasemi M. Evaluation of frequency of exposure to medical sharp devices among nurses of a university hospital. J Military Med. 2008;10:119–28. Available at: http://militarymedj.ir/article-1-576-en.html
Lotfi R, Gashtasbi A. Needle stick and sharps injuries and its risk factors among health center personnel (Astara; Iran, 2006). Journal of Babol University of Medical. Sci. 2008;10:71–7. Available at: http://www.sid.ir/En/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=129055
Azadi M, Anoosheh M. Needle stick injuries among clinical nurses. Iran J Nurs 2007;20:6–14. Available at: http://ijn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-264-en.html
Askarian M, Shaghaghian S, McLaws M-L. Needlestick injuries among nurses of Fars province. Iran Ann Epidemiol. 2007;17:988–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem2007.07.106. CrossRefPubMed
Ebrahimi H, Khosravi A. Needlestick injuries among nurses. J Res Health Sci. 2007;7:56–62. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23343925 PubMed
Nejadrahim R, Gharahughi N, Sistanizade M. Needlestick injuries in the health care workers of Urmia educational hospitals. J Urmia Nurs Midwifery Fac. 2005;3:1–10. Available at: http://unmf.umsu.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=172&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Vahedi M, Ahsan B, Ardalan M, Prevalence SS. Causes of needle stick injuries, in medical personals of Kurdistan University’s hospitals and dealing with such injuries due to contaminated sharp tools in 1383. Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of. Med Sci. 2006;11:43–50. Available at: https://sjku.muk.ac.ir/article-1-144-en.html
Hoseini Shokouh SJ, Ahmadi M. Knowledge and practice of health care workers about needle stick injury and blood borne pathogens in army 505 hospitals. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci 2003;1:119–124. Available at: http://www.sid.ir/En/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=58343.
Nazmieh H, Najaf-Yarandi A, Janmohammadi S, Hosseini F. Assessment of the injuries caused by sharp instruments in the health workers of university hospitals, in Yazd. Iran J Nurs. 2005;18:49–59. Available at: http://ijn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-9-en.html.
Poorolajal J, Hadadi A, Asasi N, Mohammad K. Frequency of occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials and related factors in healthcare workers in Hamadan-2003. Iran J Infect Dis. 2004;27:1–9. Available at: http://www.sid.ir/Fa/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=16827.
Mahmoudi N, Sepandi M, Mohammadi AS, Masoumbeigi H. Epidemiological aspects of needle stick injuries among nurses in a military hospital. Iran J Health, Safety Environ. 2015;2:374–9. Available at: www.ijhse.ir/index.php/IJHSE/article/download/102/pdf_49
Rakhshani F, Heidari M, Barati S. Prevalence of needle stick injuries among the healthcare professionals in Zahedan Medical Sciences University. Iran J Epidemiol. 2009;4:87–91. Available at: http://irje.tums.ac.ir/article-1-137-en.html
Shah SF, Bener A, Al-Kaabi S, Al Khal AL, Samson S. The epidemiology of needle stick injuries among health care workers in a newly developed country. Saf Sci. 2006;44:387–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2005.11.002. CrossRef
Hassan ZM, Wahsheh MA. Occupational exposure to sharp injuries among Jordanian health care workers. Infect Dis Clin Pract. 2009;17:169–74. https://doi.org/10.1097/IPC.0b013e31819b8d10. CrossRef
Siddique K, Mirza S, Tauqir SF, Anwar I, Malik AZ. Knowledge attitude and practices regarding needle stick injuries amongst healthcare providers. Pakistan J Surg. 2008;24:243–8. Available at: www.pjs.com.pk/journal_pdfs/oct_dec08/08_NeedleStickInjury.pdf
Azadi A, Anoosheh M, Delpisheh A. Frequency and barriers of underreported needlestick injuries amongst Iranian nurses, a questionnaire survey. J Clin Nurs. 2011;20:488–93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03252.x. CrossRefPubMed
Bairami F, Kasani E, Ghorbanpoor M, Bairami A, Pasban-Noghabi S. Needle-stick and sharp injuries incidents among healthcare workers: an updated survey in Iran. Int J Hosp Res. 2014;3:79–82. Available at: http://ijhr.iums.ac.ir/index.php/article_6122.html
Sayehmiri K, Mohammadi E, Mohammadi I, Sayehmiri F. Epidemiology of needle sticks and sharps injuries in healthcare workers in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Iran Occupational Health. 2014;11:93–103. Available at: http://ioh.iums.ac.ir/article-1-1130-en.html
Dilie A, Amare D, Gualu T. Occupational exposure to needle stick and sharp injuries and associated factors among health care workers in Awi Zone, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016. J Environ Public Health. 2017; https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2438713.
Reda AA, Fisseha S, Mengistie B, Vandeweerd J-M. Standard precautions: occupational exposure and behavior of health care workers in Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2010;5:e14420. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014420. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Jahan S, Buraidah A. Epidemiology of needlestick injuries among health care workers in a secondary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 2005;25:233–8. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16119525 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Kebede G, Molla M, Sharma HR. Needle stick and sharps injuries among health care workers in Gondar city, Ethiopia. Saf Sci. 2012;50:1093–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.11.017. CrossRef
Jaybhaye D, Dahire P, Nagaonkar A, Vedpathak V, Deo D, Kawalkar U. Needle stick injuries among health care workers in tertiary care hospital in tertiary care hospital of rural India. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014;3:49–52. https://doi.org/10.5455/ijmsph.2013.230920133. CrossRef
Khraisat FS, Juni MH, Rahman AA, Said SM. Needlestick and sharp injuries among healthcare workers in hospitals: a mini-systematic review. Int J Clinic Med Res. 2014;1:151–60. Available at: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/34633/
Yoshikawa T, Wada K, Lee JJ, Mitsuda T, Kidouchi K, Kurosu H, et al. Incidence rate of needlestick and sharps injuries in 67 Japanese hospitals: a national surveillance study. PLoS One. 2013;8:e77524. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077524. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Martins A, Coelho AC, Vieira M, Matos M, Pinto ML. Age and years in practice as factors associated with needlestick and sharps injuries among health care workers in a Portuguese hospital. Accid Anal Prev. 2012;47:11–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2012.01.011. CrossRefPubMed
Adams D. Needlestick and sharps injuries: practice update. Nurs Stand. 2012;26:49–57. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns2012.05.26.37.49.c9107. CrossRefPubMed
- Prevalence of needlestick and sharps injuries in the healthcare workers of Iranian hospitals: an updated meta-analysis
Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh
- BioMed Central