Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has rapidly become a major public health concern in Vietnam. Although the prevalence of DM has been studied in northern and southern Vietnam, little data are available for the central region. Therefore, the aims of this survey were to estimate the prevalence of DM and to identify the perception of and factors associated with DM among the adult population in central Vietnam.
We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey in Khánh Hòa Province, Vietnam in December 2014 using three-stage cluster sampling and probability proportional to size sampling in line with the World Health Organization STEPwise approach. Four hundred and eighty residents aged 20–70 years were selected from 30 villages in 10 wards/communes. After obtaining informed consent, all residents participated in interviews regarding lifestyle, medical history, and perception of DM and underwent physical measurements and blood examination for fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Factors associated with DM were analyzed using a logistic regression model.
A total of 376 residents were enrolled (response rate: 78.3%; females: 59%; rural residents: 61%). Among the participants, 14.3% and 18.9% of males and females, respectively, were classified as overweight/obese according to body mass index (BMI), 37.7% and 22.1%, respectively, had hypertension, and 36.4% and 11.7% had metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of DM in the entire population was 7.2% (27/376; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.6–9.8). Participants aged 60–70 years were more likely to have DM than those aged 30–39 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 8.7; 95%CI: 1.4–56.0), and participants classified as obese were more likely to have DM than those with normal or low BMI (aOR: 10.2; 95%CI: 2.2–50.2). Furthermore, more than two-thirds (254/376, 67.6%) of the participants either did not understand or had never heard of DM, and less than half of the DM cases (12/27, 44%) were aware of their history of DM.
The results of this study suggested that the prevalence of DM among the adult population in central Vietnam was slightly higher than that in other areas. Additional research is needed to further explore perceptions of and practices regarding DM.