The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-017-3888-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Globally, cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. High treatment cost, partly owing to higher prices of anti-cancer drugs, presents a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems. The aim of the present study was to survey and compare retail prices of anti-cancer drugs between high, middle and low income countries in the South-East Asia, Western Pacific and Eastern Mediterranean regions.
Cross-sectional survey design was used for the present study. Pricing data from ten counties including one from South-East Asia, two from Western Pacific and seven from Eastern Mediterranean regions were used in this study. Purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted mean unit prices for 26 anti-cancer drug presentations (similar pharmaceutical form, strength, and pack size) were used to compare prices of anti-cancer drugs across three regions. A structured form was used to extract relevant data. Data were entered and analysed using Microsoft Excel®.
Overall, Taiwan had the lowest mean unit prices while Oman had the highest prices. Six (23.1%) and nine (34.6%) drug presentations had a mean unit price below US$100 and between US$100 and US$500 respectively. Eight drug presentations (30.7%) had a mean unit price of more than US$1000 including cabazitaxel with a mean unit price of $17,304.9/vial. There was a direct relationship between income category of the countries and their mean unit price; low-income countries had lower mean unit prices. The average PPP-adjusted unit prices for countries based on their income level were as follows: low middle-income countries (LMICs): US$814.07; high middle income countries (HMICs): US$1150.63; and high income countries (HICs): US$1148.19.
There is a great variation in pricing of anticancer drugs in selected countires and within their respective regions. These findings will allow policy makers to compare prices of anti-cancer agents with neighbouring countries and develop policies to ensure accessibility and affordability of anti-cancer drugs.
QuntilesIMS Institute. Developments in Cancer Treatments, Market Dynamics, Patient Access and Value: Global Oncology Trend Report 2015. Available at, https://morningconsult.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/IMS-Institute-Global-Oncology-Report-05.31.16.pdf. [Assessed June 10, 2016].
Taira DA, Wong KS, Frech-Tamas F, Chung RS. Copayment level and compliance with antihypertensive medication: analysis and policy implications for managed care. Am J Manag Care. 2006;12(11):678–83. PubMed
Mojtabai R, Olfson M. Medication costs, adherence, and health outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries. Health Aff. 2003;22(4):220–9. CrossRef
Sankaranarayanan R, Ramadas K, Qiao YI. Managing the changing burden of cancer in Asia. BMC Med. 2014;2(1):1–17.
Kasteng F, Wilking N, Jönsson B. Patient access to cancer drugs in nine countries in the Middle East Middle East Oncology Drug Uptake. 2008. Available at http://www.comparatorreports.se/Middle%20East%20oncology%20drug%20uptake%20Final%20report%20Sept%2015%202008.pdf. [Assessed June 10, 2016].
The World Bank Group. Price level ratio of PPP conversion factor [GDP] to market exchange rate. Available at http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/PA.NUS.PPPC.RF?view=map. [Assessed June 10, 2016].
United Nations. United Nation's Statistics Division- Standard Countries or areas, codes classification. Available at http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49alpha.htm. [Assessed June 10, 2016].
Statistical Bureau of China [Taiwan]. National Statistics-Latest Indicators 2016. Available at https://eng.stat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=39212&ctNode=2008&mp=5. [Assessed June 10, 2016].
World Health Organisation, Pharmaceutical Pricing Policy: Financing and sustainability in Management sciences for Health. 2013. p. 9.12.
Hoen E. Access to cancer treatment: A study of medicine pricing issues with recommendations for improving access to cancer medication. 2014. Available at https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/file_attachments/rr-access-cancer-treatment-inequality-040215-en.pdf. [Assessed June 10, 2016].
World Health Organization. Price information exchange for selected medicines in the Western Pacific Region. Available at https://www.piemeds.com/. [Assessed June 10, 2016].
U.S. International Trade Commission. Pricing for prescription drugs. 2000. Available at https://www.usitc.gov/publications/docs/pubs/332/PUB3333.PDF. [Assessed June 10, 2016].
- Pricing appraisal of anti-cancer drugs in the South East Asian, Western Pacific and East Mediterranean Region
Kah Seng Lee
Long Chiau Ming
Chin Fen Neoh
Mahmoud E. Elrggal
Zaheer-Ud- Din Babar
Tahir Mehmood Khan
Muhammad Abdul Hadi
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Onkologie
Mail Icon II