Primary synovial sarcoma of the kidney is a rare type of soft tissue sarcoma. Its presenting features can resemble those of other renal tumors; rendering its early diagnosis, a dilemma. Several cases of renal synovial sarcoma have been reported in the literature with varying treatment options and outcomes. This article describes a rare case of primary renal synovial sarcoma and reviews all cases in the literature.
A 26-year-old male presented with flank pain and hematuria. Initially diagnosed with Wilm’s tumor, revision of pathology and histology, along with the immunohistochemical profile, confirmed, nevertheless, the diagnosis of primary monophasic synovial sarcoma of the kidney with the SYT-SSX2 fusion transcript. Follow-up, post nephrectomy, revealed recurrence within the lungs and at the surgical bed. Surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy regimen constituting of Doxorubicin and Ifosfamide, achieved complete pathological response.
In this case report, we emphasize the need for accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment. We propose multimodality treatment approach including surgery along with anthracycline-based chemotherapy to induce complete remission.