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15.08.2018 | 2018 SSAT Quick Shot Presentation | Ausgabe 3/2019

Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 3/2019

Prognosis and Adherence with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines of Patients with Biliary Tract Cancers: an Analysis of the National Cancer Database

Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery > Ausgabe 3/2019
Fabio Bagante, Faiz Gani, Eliza W. Beal, Katiuscha Merath, Qinyu Chen, Mary Dillhoff, Jordan Cloyd, Timothy M. Pawlik
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11605-018-3912-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Dr. Bagante’s research is supported by the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA) Kenneth Warren Fellowship 2017-2018.



The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend chemotherapy for patients with inoperable biliary tract cancers (BTC), as well as patients following resection of BTC with lymph node metastasis (N1)/positive margins (R1). We sought to define overall adherence, as well as long-term outcomes, with the NCCN guidelines for BTC using the National Cancer Database (NCDB).


A total of 176,536 patients diagnosed with BTC at a hospital participating in the NCDB between 2004 and 2015 were identified.


Among all patients, 63% of patients received medical therapy (chemotherapy or best supportive care), 11% underwent surgical palliation, and 26% underwent curative-intent surgery. According to the NCCN guidelines, 86% (n = 152,245) of patients were eligible for chemotherapy, yet, only 42.2% (n = 64,615) received chemotherapy. Factors associated with a lower adherence with NCCN guidelines included patient age (> 65 years: OR = 1.02), ethnicity (Black: OR = 1.14, Hispanic: OR = 1.21, Asian: OR = 1.24), and insurance status (non-private: OR = 1.45, all p < 0.001). A smaller subset of patients was either recommended chemotherapy but refused (n = 9269, 10.6%) or had medical factors that contraindicated chemotherapy (n = 8275, 9.4%). On multivariable analysis, adjusting for clinical and tumor-specific factors, adherence with NCCN guidelines was associated with a survival benefit for patients receiving medical therapies (HR = 0.74) or undergoing curative-intent surgery (HR = 0.73, both p < 0.001).


Less than half of patients with BTC received systemic chemotherapy in adherence with NCCN guidelines. While a subset of patients had contraindications or refused chemotherapy, other factors such as insurance status and ethnicity were associated with adherence. Adherence with chemotherapy guidelines may influence long-term outcomes.

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