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The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-017-1362-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a complex disorder resulting from the combined effects of multiple environmental and genetic factors. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), particularly microRNAs (miRNAs), regulate several cellular processes and have an important role in many human malignancies including PCa. We assessed the sRNA profiles associated with PCa in Arabs, a population that has rarely been studied.
We used next generation sequencing technology to obtain the entire sRNA transcriptome of primary prostate tumor formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, and their paired non-tumor tissues, collected from Bedouin patients (Qatari and Saudi). The miRNA and the target gene expression were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR. miRNA KEGG pathway and miRNA target genes were subsequently analyzed by starBase and TargetScan software.
Different expression patterns of several sRNA and miRNA editing were revealed between PCa tumor and their paired non-tumor tissues. Our study identified four miRNAs that are strongly associated with prostate cancer, which have not been reported previously. Differentially expressed miRNAs significantly affect various biological pathways, such as cell cycle, endocytosis, adherence junction and pathways involved in cancer. Prediction of potential targets for the identified miRNAs indicates the overexpression of KRAS, BCL2 and down-regulation of PTEN in PCa tumor tissues.
These miRNAs, newly associated with prostate cancer, may represent not only markers for the increased risk of PCa in Arabs, but may also reflect the clinical and pathological diversity as well as the ethno-specific heterogeneity of prostate cancer.