17.10.2023 | Original Article
Protective effect of olopatadine hydrochloride against LPS-induced acute lung injury: via targeting NF-κB signaling pathway
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Morbidity and mortality rates associated with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) are high (30–40%). Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a transcription factor, associated with transcription of numerous cytokines leading to cytokine storm, and thereby, plays a major role in ALI/ARDS and in advanced COVID-19 syndrome.
Considering the role of NF-κB in ALI, cost-effective in silico approaches were utilized in the study to identify potential NF-κB inhibitor based on the docking and pharmacokinetic results. The identified compound was then pharmacologically validated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rodent model of acute lung injury. LPS induces ALI by altering alveolar membrane permeability, recruiting activated neutrophils and macrophages to the lungs, and compromising the alveolar membrane integrity and ultimately impairs the gaseous exchange. Furthermore, LPS exposure is associated with exaggerated production of various proinflammatory cytokines in lungs.
Based on in silico studies Olopatadine Hydrochloride (Olo), an FDA–approved drug was found as a potential NF-κB inhibitor which has been reported for the first time, and considered further for the pharmacological validation. Intraperitoneal LPS administration resulted in ALI/ARDS by fulfilling 3 out of the 4 criteria described by ATS committee (2011) published workshop report. However, treatment with Olo attenuated LPS-induced elevation of proinflammatory markers (IL-6 and NF-κB), oxidative stress, neutrophil infiltration, edema, and damage in lungs. Histopathological studies also revealed that Olo treatment significantly ameliorated LPS-induced lung injury, thus conferring improvement in survival. Especially, the effects produced by Olo medium dose (1 mg/kg) were comparable to dexamethasone standard.
In nutshell, inhibition of NF-κB pathway by Olo resulted in protection and reduced mortality in LPS- induced ALI and thus has potential to be used clinically to arrest disease progression in ALI/ARDS, since the drug is already in the market. However, the findings warrant further extensive studies, and also future studies can be planned to elucidate its role in COVID-19-associated ARDS or cytokine storm.