To elucidate possible independent associations of psychological resources with inflammatory markers, all linked with coronary heart disease (CHD).
In a middle-aged general population (n = 944), psychological resources (coping, self-esteem, and sense of coherence (SOC)), a global measure of quality of life (Cantril’s self-anchoring ladder, also called “ladder of life”), and psychological risk factors (hopelessness, vital exhaustion, and depressive symptoms) were used in linear regression models to evaluate associations with the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Adjustments were done for age, sex, medical conditions, and cardiovascular risk factors.
After full adjustments, self-esteem was independently associated with all three biomarkers. Ladder of life was associated with IL-6 and log-CRP; coping, vital exhaustion, and depressive symptoms with IL-6; and SOC with MMP-9 (p < 0.05 for all associations).
Numerous significant associations of psychological resources and risk factors with IL-6, CRP, and MMP-9 were found in a community-based sample. The associations of psychological resources were mostly independent, while the psychological risk factors seemed preferentially dependent on lifestyle factors as smoking, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI). This suggests that the psychological resources’ (in particular self-esteem) protective effects on CHD are linked to inflammatory markers.
Lett HS, Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, et al. Depression as a risk factor for coronary artery disease: evidence, mechanisms, and treatment. Psychosom Med. 2004;66:305–15. PubMed
Sjogren E, Leanderson P, Kristenson M, Ernerudh J. Interleukin-6 levels in relation to psychosocial factors: studies on serum, saliva, and in vitro production by blood mononuclear cells. Brain Behav Immun. 2005.
Hollman G, Kristenson M. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in a middle-aged Swedish population—mainly a function of overweight? Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2007.
Khani BR, Ye W, Terry P, Wolk A. Reproducibility and validity of major dietary patterns among Swedish women assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. J Nutr. 2004;134:1541–5. PubMed
Kallings LV, Leijon M, Hellenius ML, Stahle A. Physical activity on prescription in primary health care: a follow-up of physical activity level and quality of life. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007.
Pearlin LI, Schooler C. The structure of coping. J Health Soc Behav. 1978;19:19.
Antonovsky A. Unraveling the mystery of health: how people manage stress and stay well. 1st ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1987.
Cantril H. The pattern of human concerns. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press; 1965.
The RL, Scale CES-D. A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas. 1977;1:385–401. CrossRef
- Psychological Resources Are Independently Associated with Markers of Inflammation in a Middle-Aged Community Sample
- Springer US