Skip to main content

01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Oral Health 1/2015

Psychometric properties of the Albanian version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale: OES-ALB

BMC Oral Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Venera Bimbashi, Asja Čelebić, Gloria Staka, Flurije Hoxha, Sanja Peršić, Nikola Petričević
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

This study was designed by VB, AC, GS and FH. They made significant assistance in research planning and data collection. VB, AC, GS and SP contributed in analysis and interpretation of records. VB has been engaged in drafting the manuscript, which was edited by AC, GS and NP. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



The aim was to adapt the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) and to test psychometric properties of the Albanian language version in the cultural environment of the Republic of Kosovo.


The OES questionnaire was translated from the original English version according to the accepted techniques. The reliability (internal consistency), and validity (construct, convergent and discriminative) were tested in 169 subjects, test-retest in 61 dental students (DS), and responsiveness in 51 prosthodontic patients with treatment needs (PPTN).


The corrected item correlation coefficients of OES-ALB ranged from 0.686 to 0.909. The inter-item correlation coefficient ranged between 0.572 and 0.919. The Cronbach’s alpha was 0.961 and IIC 0.758. Test- retest was confirmed by good ICCs and by no significant differences of the OES scores through the period of 14 days without any orofacial changes (p > 0.05). Construct validity was proved by the presence of one-factor composition that assumed 79.079 % of the variance. Convergent validity showed significant correlation between one general question about satisfaction with orofacial esthetics and the OES summary score, as well as between the sum of the 3 OHIP-ALB49 questions related to orofacial aesthetics and the OES summary score. Discriminative validity was confirmed with statistically significant differences between DS, prosthodontic patients without treatment need and PPTN (p < 0.01). Responsiveness was confirmed by a significant increase of OES scores after PPTN patients received new fixed partial or removable dentures (P < 0.001).


The results proved excellent psychometric properties of the OES-ALB questionnaire in the Republic of Kosovo.
Über diesen Artikel

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 1/2015

BMC Oral Health 1/2015 Zur Ausgabe

Neu im Fachgebiet Zahnmedizin

Mail Icon II Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Zahnmedizin und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.