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01.12.2011 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2011 Open Access

Journal of Medical Case Reports 1/2011

Pulmonary histoplasmosis presenting as chronic productive cough, fever, and massive unilateral consolidation in a 15-year-old immune-competent boy: a case report

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Medical Case Reports > Ausgabe 1/2011
Autoren:
Rodrick Kabangila, Kilonzo Semvua, Peter Rambau, Kahima Jackson, Stephen E Mshana, Hyasinta Jaka, Robert N Peck
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1752-1947-5-374) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors' contributions

RK, SK, RNP, and HJ managed the patient and collected all clinical information. PR and KJ performed post-mortem and histological analyses. SEM performed microbiological analysis and wrote the manuscript. All authors read, edited, and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Introduction

Severe histoplasmosis is known to be among the AIDS-defining opportunistic infections affecting patients with very low CD4 cell counts in histoplasmosis-endemic areas. Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii is common in West and Central Africa, where it occurs in both HIV/AIDS and non-HIV patients. Few cases of life-threatening histoplasmosis in immune-competent individuals have been reported worldwide.

Case report

We describe a case of pulmonary histoplasmosis diagnosed on the basis of autopsy and histological investigations. A 15-year old East African immune-competent boy with a history of smear-positive tuberculosis and a two-year history of rock cutting presented to our hospital with chronic productive cough, fever, and massive unilateral consolidation. At the time of presentation to our hospital, this patient was empirically treated for recurrent tuberculosis without success, and he died on the seventh day after admission. The autopsy revealed a huge granulomatous lesion with caseation, but no acid-fast bacilli were detected on several Ziehl-Neelsen stains. However, periodic acid-Schiff staining was positive, and the histological examination revealed features suggestive of Histoplasma yeast cells.

Conclusion

Severe pulmonary histoplasmosis should be considered in evaluating immune-competent patients with risk factors for the disease who present with pulmonary symptoms mimicking tuberculosis.

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