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01.12.2012 | Technical notes | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Cardiovascular Ultrasound 1/2012

Quantification of echodensities in tuberculous pericardial effusion using fractal geometry: a proof of concept study

Zeitschrift:
Cardiovascular Ultrasound > Ausgabe 1/2012
Autoren:
Mpiko Ntsekhe, Bongani M Mayosi, Tawanda Gumbo
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1476-7120-10-30) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

TG conceived the idea for this study. TG, MN and BM designed the study. MN collected the data which he analyzed together with TG. MN wrote the first draft of the manuscript, which was revised by BM and TG. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Background

The purpose of this study was to quantify the heterogeneous distribution of echodensities in the pericardial fluid of patients with tuberculous pericarditis using echocardiography and fractal analysis, and to determine whether there were differences in the fractal dimensions of effusive-constrictive and effusive non-constrictive disease.

Methods

We used fractal geometry to quantify the echocardiographic densities in patients who were enrolled in the I nvestigation of the M anagement of P ericarditis i n Africa (IMPI Africa) Registry. Sub-costal and four chamber images were included in the analysis if a minimum of two clearly identified fibrin strands were present and the quality of the images were of a standard which allowed for accurate measurement of the fractal dimension. The fractal dimension was calculated as follows: Df = limlog N(s)/[log (l/s)], where Df is the box counting fractal dimension of the fibrin strand, s is the side length of the box and N(s) is the smallest number of boxes of side length s to cover the outline of the object being measured. We compared the fractal dimension of echocardiographic findings in patients with effusive constrictive pericarditis to effusive non-constrictive pericardial effusion using the non-parametric Mann–Whitney test.

Results

Of the 14 echocardiographs from 14 participants that were selected for the study, 42.8% (6/14) of images were subcostal views while 57.1% (8/14) were 4-chamber views. Eight of the patients had tuberculous effusive constrictive pericarditis while 6 had tuberculous effusive non-constrictive pericarditis. The mean fractal dimension Df was 1.325 with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.146. The measured fibrin strand dimension exceeded the topological dimension in all the images over the entire range of grid scales with a correlation coefficient (r2) greater than 0.8 in the majority. The fractal dimension of echodensities was 1.359 ± 0.199 in effusive constrictive pericarditis compared to 1.330 ± 0.166 in effusive non-constrictive pericarditis (p = 0.595).

Conclusions

The echocardiographic densities in tuberculous pericardial effusion have a fractal geometrical dimension which is similar in pure effusive and effusive constrictive disease.
Zusatzmaterial
Authors’ original file for figure 1
12947_2012_427_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 2
12947_2012_427_MOESM2_ESM.pdf
Literatur
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