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22.02.2021 | Original Paper Open Access

Quantification of regurgitation in mitral valve prolapse with automated real time echocardiographic 3D proximal isovelocity surface area: multimodality consistency and role of eccentricity index

The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Ricardo A. Spampinato, Frank Lindemann, Cosima Jahnke, Ingo Paetsch, Florian Fahr, Franz Sieg, Maximilian von Roeder, Thilo Noack, Sebastian Hilbert, Susanne Löbe, Elfriede Strotdrees, Gerhard Hindricks, Michael A. Borger
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10554-021-02179-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Ricardo A. Spampinato and Frank Lindemann have contributed equally.

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Three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3D-TTE) provides a semi-automated proximal isovelocity surface area method (3D-PISA) to obtain quantitative parameters. Data assessing regurgitation severity in mitral valve prolapse (MVP) are scarce, so we assessed the 3D-PISA method compared with 2D-PISA and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and the role of an eccentricity index. We evaluated the 3D-PISA method for assessing MR in 54 patients with MVP (57 ± 14 years; 42 men; 12 mild/mild-moderate; 12 moderate-severe; and 30 severe MR). Role of an asymmetric (i.e. eccentricity index ≥ 1.25) flow convergence region (FCR) and inter-modality consistency were then assessed. 3D-PISA derived regurgitant volume (RVol) showed a good correlation with 2D-PISA and CMR derived parameters (r = 0.86 and r = 0.81, respectively). The small mean differences with 2D-PISA derived RVol did not reach statistical significance in overall population (5.7 ± 23 ml, 95% CI − 0.6 to 12; p = 0.08) but differed in those with asymmetric 3D-FCR (n = 21; 2D-PISA: 72 ± 36 ml vs. 3D-PISA: 93 ± 47 ml; p = 0.001). RVol mean values were higher using PISA methods (CMR 57 ± 33 ml; 2D-PISA 73 ± 39 ml; and 3D-PISA 79 ± 45 ml) and an overestimation was observed when CMR was used as reference (2D-PISA vs. CMR: mean difference: 15.8 ml [95% CI 10–22, p < 0.001]; and 3D-PISA vs. CMR: 21.5 ml [95% CI 14–29, p < 0.001]). Intra- and inter-observer reliability was excellent (ICC 0.91–0.99), but with numerically lower coefficient of variation for 3D-PISA (8%–10% vs. 2D-PISA: 12%–16%). 3D-PISA method for assessing regurgitation in MVP may enable analogous evaluation compared to standard 2D-PISA, but with overestimation in case of asymmetric FCR or when CMR is used as reference method.

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